Tag Archives: genocide

A Crush on Syria, by Sergey Markedonov

Russia’s Motives for Supporting Syria’s Current Regime Are Pragmatic, but Diplomats Are Failing to Articulate Them Properly

Comment by Sergey Markedonov
Special to Russia Profile

03/21/2012
The Russian Foreign Ministry declared last week that it considers the statements by the United States and its European allies regarding the illegitimacy of current Syrian President Bashar al-Assad unacceptable. According to Deputy Foreign Minister Mikhail Bogdanov, such statements “are counterproductive as they give a false signal to the opposition that there is no reason to engage in dialogue, that it’s better to expect help from NATO and the West, as was the case in Libya.” So why is Russia so stringently opposed to Western intervention in this Arab country?

Civil strife in Syria has lasted for a year now. The United Nations estimates that over this period about 5,500 people have been killed. Right from the start of the conflict Moscow has been consistently opposed to foreign military intervention and regime change. It called for the rejection of any one-sided assessment in favor of dialogue by the opposing sides and shared political responsibilities between them. This raises a legitimate question: what determines the Russian diplomats’ stance?

As Daniel Treisman, a professor at the University of California in Los Angeles, aptly put it: “Western commentators typically attribute such behavior to Vladimir Putin’s personal paranoia or to attempts to rekindle the nation’s wounded pride and assert Russia’s superpower status. Look a little closer, however, and Russia’s actions seem motivated more by calculated – albeit sometimes miscalculated – realpolitik than by psychological impulses.”

Attempts to explain Moscow’s position on the Syrian issue from the perspective of the Putin regime’s non-democratic nature are out of touch with reality. Sure, Moscow is in league with China or Venezuela on this. But the United States and other NATO countries also identify themselves with Bashar al-Assad’s opponents like Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Qatar, which do not share Western democratic values.

Meanwhile, one year ago Saudi Arabia sent 1,000 troops, while the United Arab Emirates dispatched some 500 police officers, to intervene in the internal political struggle in Bahrain, which resulted in a harsh crackdown on anti-government protests. Eight activists were sentenced to life in prison. It’s telling that neither Washington nor Brussels showed the slightest concern about the “suppressed Bahraini democracy and human rights.”

What, then, are Moscow’s motives, if they are not just a question of supporting “a spiritually close dictator?” From my point of view, “the Syrian question” in Russia is a three-dimensional phenomenon. The first dimension, strictly speaking, has nothing to do with Syria. It concerns Moscow’s long-running dispute (often together with Beijing and New Delhi) with the West about the relationship between sovereignty and intervention in the domestic political process. That controversy dates back to the ethnic conflicts in the Balkans.

For the sake of objectivity, it is worth noting that Moscow has not always been consistent. In August of 2008 it recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, even though over the previous 17 years it built its relations with Georgia on the basis of Georgia’s territorial integrity. Yet in 2008 the Kremlin did not push for regime change in Georgia by supporting the alternative “people’s government.” In any case, in most situations Russia does not take kindly to regime change imposed from the outside.

It is perhaps no secret that international institutions erode state sovereignty. Much has been said about the ineffectiveness of the United Nations. However, preserving the integrity of the United Nations has never been of abstract, but of practical significance to Moscow. While that may not be much, it does allow Russia to hold on to the status of a beneficiary in global politics, gained by the Soviet Union in 1945. Without that, Moscow’s voice in international politics would be much weaker.

The second has to do with bilateral Russian-Syrian relations. As Treisman rightly said, “Russia has real commercial interests in Syria. Contracts to sell arms to Damascus – both those signed and under negotiation – total $5 billion. Having lost $13 billion due to international sanctions on Iran and $4.5 billion in canceled contracts to Libya, Russia’s defense industry is already reeling. Besides arms exports, Russian companies have major investments in Syria’s infrastructure, energy and tourism sectors.” But that’s not all. The Russian naval forces have a base on Syrian territory. The base in the Syrian port of Tartus is Russia’s only military object in the Mediterranean Sea. And there have so far been no alternative proposals from Moscow’s other partners.

The third has an internal Russian dimension to it. It is related to the situation in the North Caucasus, the most problematic region of the country. From the moment Russia first launched the first military operation in Chechnya in late 1994, Moscow faced the problem not only of such decisions’ internal legitimacy, but also of how to minimize the risk to its foreign policy. In this case it is about a region inhabited by millions of Muslims, connected to the wider Muslim world through thousands of networks. There was never a common position in relation to Russia’s North Caucasus policy in the Arab world (and there is none now), considering the diverse interests of Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria and Qatar.

But while Damascus supported the territorial integrity of Russia and condemned the terrorist attacks carried out first by separatist forces and later by the Islamic underground, Qatar played host to one of the leaders of the unrecognized Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev. Moreover, Bashar al-Assad clearly took Russia’s side during the “five-day war” with Georgia in 2008, calling it a “guarantor of peace” in the North Caucasus Region. Now that growth in Islamic sentiment is more or less the only practical result of the “Arab Spring,” the defeat of the secular Assad regime cannot but be a cause for concern in Moscow.

One interesting fact: during the presidential campaign in Russia, Mikhail Prokhorov, who positioned himself as a liberal, sharply attacked Western policy in Syria. His argument then was largely based on those concerns, especially since among the opponents of secular power in Syria there are many people who are willing to support the “just struggle of the brothers in faith” in the North Caucasus.

Another equally important Syrian “Caucasus factor” is the situation of the Circassian community in that country. The community, which has been loyal to the Syrian authorities, is now suffering from the civil conflict. It’s no coincidence that the Circassian community has appealed to Russian leadership with requests for repatriation. According to Sufian Zhemukhov, a political analyst and journalist, the “‘Syrian question’ has given the Kremlin the only real chance to decouple the Circassian problem from the Sochi Olympics. This will not solve the Circassian question, but it will remove the issue from the agenda before the Olympics games. The resettlement of the Circassians from Syria to the Caucasus will marginalize anti-Russian activists in the Diaspora.”

Thus Russia’s interests in Syria should not be viewed solely as “phantoms of the Cold War” and the complexes of Russian leaders. To a large extent, Moscow’s approaches are pragmatic. Unfortunately, until now Russia has been unable to articulate its interests in an understandable way and to defend them with well-formulated arguments.

Sergey Markedonov, Ph.D., is a political analyst and visiting fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Russia and Eurasia Program, in Washington, DC.

Source: Russia Profile

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The Circassian Dimension of the 2014 Sochi Olympics, by Sufian Zhemukhov

The Circassian Dimension of the 2014 Sochi Olympics, by Sufian Zhemukhov

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PONARS Policy Memo No. 65 – Georgetown University

Sufian Zhemukhov
Kabardino-Balkarian Institute of Humanitarian Studies
September 2009

In 2014, the popular Russian Black Sea resort city of Sochi will host the Winter Olympics, signifying Russia’s increasingly high international profile. The honor of hosting the Olympics is a challenge and opportunity for the host country, which must be ready for a number of unexpected, if inevitable, domestic and foreign challenges. Criticisms and controversy accompany the run-up to every Olympic Games. China, for example, withstood intense pressure from international nongovernmental organizations before the start of the 2008 Beijing Olympics due to the situation in Tibet. In 2002, a member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) suggested that the Winter Games be relocated from Salt Lake City, since the United States was a country at war (with the Taliban in Afghanistan). Earlier, in 1980, U.S. President Jimmy Carter asked the IOC to move the Olympic Games from Moscow after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The 2014 Olympics in Sochi are still five years away, but they have already become one of the most discussed issues on the Russian political agenda.

Circassian Memory and the Sochi Olympics

The Circassian question is one of the less appreciated issues highlighted by the 2014 Sochi Olympics. Historical Circassia today is divided between six regions of the Russian Federation. In Soviet times, the Circassians were split and subdivided into several Soviet narodnosti (nationalities) with different ethnonyms in Russian – Kabardin, Adyghei, Cherkess, and Shapsug – and spread over several administrative units. Today, most of Russia’s 700,000 Circassians form ”titular nationalities” in the Republics of Kabardino-Balkaria, Adyghea, and Karachaevo-Cherkessia, while a lesser number live in the Krasnodar and Stavropol regions and in North Ossetia.

However, nearly 90 percent of the global Circassian population lives outside Russia. Most live in the states of the former Ottoman Empire – mainly Turkey, Syria, and Jordan – to which they were deported in the nineteenth century. As a share of total population, the Circassian diaspora is the largest in the world. It is also the second largest diaspora from Russia, after the 25-million strong ethnic Russian diaspora itself. Since the end of the Cold War, the Circassian world has developed an ideological unity based upon a shared memory of deportation and the fragmentation of its remaining territory. Repatriation and unification of the native land have become the primary goals of the Circassian nation.

The Circassian question is closely related to the Sochi Olympics in several symbolic ways. By an irony of history, the 2014 Olympic Games will mark the 150th anniversary of the Circassian defeat in 1864, when, after over a century of fighting, Tsar Alexander II declared victory for Russia. Every year on May 21, Circassians around the world light 101 candles and observe a minute of silence in memory of the 101-year war. Sochi itself was the site of the war’s last battles, and its port was the place from which the Circassians were deported to the Ottoman Empire. Krasnaya Polyana (Kbaada in Circassian), the area that will be the center of the 2014 Olympic Games, was where, on May 21, 1864, a parade of Russian troops celebrated the end of the war with Circassians.

In addition to its association with the war, Sochi is emblematic of the Circassian homeland. The city is named after the Circassian ethnic group Shache, who lived there until 1864. It was also the last capital of independent Circassia (1861-1864). At present, there are about 15,000 Circassian Shapsugs living around Sochi who demand the restoration of the Shapsug National District (1924–1945) and the historical Circassian name of their capital Psyshu, renamed Lazarevskoye after Admiral Mikhail Lazarev, notorious for destroying coastal Circassian villages.

The Revival of the Circassian Question

The Circassian question, practically dormant before Russia won the Olympic bid in 2007, has actively reemerged in recent years. One of its first mentions followed discussion of government plans to “amalgamate” some of Russia’s federal regions. This discussion sparked Circassian discontent, as the possible merger of Circassian Adygeia with the largely Russian Krasnodar region was raised. Moscow analysts have noted that the Winter Olympics will prevent this merger until after 2014; if Adygeia were to join Krasnodar, Circassians would most likely oppose the Olympics. At the same time, intellectuals from various Circassian communities have suggested that the idea of a single Circassian republic could also be raised within the framework of the amalgamation of existing regions, eliminating the ethno-territorial divisions imposed under Joseph Stalin. This idea to unify the Circassians into a single federal subject was publicly declared in November 2008 at an Extraordinary Session of the Circassian People’s Congress.

Also generating a Circassian response was the failure of the Russian media to mention the Circassians’ historical presence in the region and its presentation of Sochi as historically a part of ancient Colchis, inhabited by ancient Greeks. Circassian organizations argued that symbols of Circassian history and culture cannot be ignored and should be included in the format of the Sochi Olympics, just as Australia highlighted its indigenous population in the 2000 Summer Olympics. The media’s discussion of the celebration of Sochi’s 170th anniversary also provoked protest from Circassian NGOs. In March 2008, leaders of the Shapsug Khase (Shapsug Council) recalled Sochi’s official 150th anniversary, when the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Institute of History announced that 1838 was not the founding year of Sochi but the date of its conquest by Russian troops (the Circassians recaptured it after the Crimean War but lost it again in 1864).

Most Circassians see the Sochi Olympics as an opportunity to plead their case, rather than as an offense to be resisted. Still, many Circassians have opposed the Winter Grames on the grounds that they will take place on “ethnically-cleansed” land. Some Circassian NGOs have branded the Olympics the “Games on Bones” and opposed construction work at Krasnaya Polyana, as it could endanger important burial sites. In October 2007, about 200 Circassian activists organized meetings in front of Russian consulates in New York and Istanbul to protest against holding the Winter Games in Sochi. Finally, the Circassian anti-Olympic movement began to seek official Russian recognition of the Circassian genocide and called on the IOC to move the Games.

Softening Discontent

Participating in the Circassian Olympic debate are several groups with motivations that shift, expand, and sometimes (but not always) coincide. These groups consist of local elites and the intelligentsia, members of the international diaspora, and politicians and businessmen who have something to gain through the power plays surrounding the Sochi Olympics. These groups are converging on the importance of raising the Circassian question, but fissures could reappear in the future.

For example, Circassians and Abkhaz may be unified in terms of the Abkhaz conflict with Georgia, but they are not necessarily unified in their attitude toward the Olympics. Abkhazia, located just thirty kilometers from Sochi, has supported the 2014 Olympics from the start, perceiving it as an excellent economic opportunity. The Winter Games can bring much-needed investment to Abkhazia through increased demand for construction materials, workers, and territory for Olympic use. The governor of the Krasnodar region, Aleksander Tkachev, and Abkhazian president Sergei Bagapsh signed a cooperation agreement in May 2008, according to which Abkhazia will provide assistance for the construction of Olympic facilities in Sochi. Thanks to Abkhazia’s enthusiasm, some analysts have even suggested that it risks losing support from Circassians who oppose the Sochi Olympics.

Russia’s recognition of Abkhazia has considerably softened the position of the Circassian world toward the Sochi Olympics. Though having adopted a more supportive view, Circassians continue to use the run-up to 2014 as a means to spread information about and draw attention to their cause. In April 2009, the author of this memo and Aleksei Bekshokov, the leader of the Union of Abkhaz Volunteers, proposed that a Circassian Olympic Games be held in 2012, including competition in twelve sports, to correspond to the number of stars on the Circassian flag, and that Circassian elements (twelve stars and three arrows) be included in the emblem of the Sochi Olympics to remind the world about the area’s native inhabitants. A series of presentations on the project took place in cities throughout Russia, including Sochi, Moscow, and St. Petersburg.

Some also view the economic aspect of the Sochi Olympics as a potential benefit for the wider Circassian world. According to Adygeia’s president Aslan Tkhakushinov, “The Olympic Games bring countries a colossal income. It’s probably worth taking a look at this side of the coin as well. The Olympics should not hurt anyone’s national interests. It should be a festival.”

The Olympics may well provide economic opportunities for the Circassian regions of Agygheia, Kabardino-Balkaria, and Karachaevo-Cherkessia. One idea has been to develop mountain tourism in these republics in association with the Winter Games. A major question, however, is how to connect these areas to Sochi. On a map, the Circassian capitals of Maykop, Nalchik, and Cherkessk are relatively close to Sochi, but, separated by the Caucasus mountain range, they are distant in terms of road connections and available transportation. A direct road connection would transform the region into one large mountain and sea resort where tourists could swim in the Black Sea and then drive half a day to ski on the slopes of Mount Elbrus. Experts are studying three different projects for connecting the Circassian regions to the Black Sea. Cherkessk-Adler and Maykop–Adler were the principal routes that were discussed prior to the onset of the financial crisis. The third possible project is the reconstruction of the old military highway linking Cherkessk to Abkhazia, a popular tourist route during Soviet times that fell into disrepair after the Georgian-Abkhaz war of 1992-93.

For now, however, such prospects remain mere possibilities. Due to the financial crisis and a subsequent 30 percent reduction of the budget for road construction in Russia, most specialists say that none of the road projects are realistic. In general, deputy chairman of the International Circassian Association Nalbiy Guchetl has been less optimistic about the economic opportunities for Russia’s Circassian-inhabited regions, remarking that “investing billions in Sochi will create an even greater economic gap between Krasnodar and Adygeia, providing new arguments in favor of abolishing Adygeia on the grounds that it is an economic failure.”

Sochi and the Future of the Circassian Question

Despite these considerations, the Circassian question has been bypassed in most discussions of the Sochi Olympics. While Circassian NGOs have been concerned about construction work that may endanger burial sites, the agenda of the environmentally-driven anti-Olympic movement in Russia does not include the Circassian question. Not a single Circassian signed the petition that forty-seven Russian organizations sent to the IOC against the Sochi Games out of concern for its potential ecological impact. Thanks to the small Circassian electorate in Sochi, it was also easy for all candidates in the city’s April 2009 mayoral election to avoid the Circassian question. Even opposition candidates who tended to exploit any problematic aspect of the Sochi Olympics in their campaigns ignored the Circassian question.

However, the election still indirectly had a Circassian component, which revealed that the Kremlin was not entirely neglectful of the issue. Six months before the election, Jambulat Khatuov, an ethnic Circassian, was appointed acting mayor of Sochi for three months; he later became a deputy governor of the Krasnodar region that includes Sochi. In mostly Russian Krasnodar, the population of which is less than one percent Circassian, there are now two Circassian deputy governors. The other, Murat Akhejak, directed the campaign of the Kremlin candidate during the mayoral election.

At the moment, the Circassian dimension is a relatively minor issue relative to the others that surround the Sochi Olympics. Only a few intellectuals and social groups are mobilizing around the cause, while other constituencies, like the more powerful local governments, evince far more enthusiasm.

Why, then, is the Circassian issue important in policy terms? First, the intellectuals and diaspora activists that are “globalizing” the Circassian discourse in connection with the Olympics may ultimately pose a challenge to the Russian state. They could potentially cast Circassians as the “indigenous people” of the Northwest Caucasus, for example, or use the term “genocide” as a rhetorical tool. This could lead to an internationalization of the questions of Circassian unification and diaspora return.

Second, a disjuncture between official and NGO/diaspora discourse regarding Circassian history and identity appears to be growing. If the Sochi Olympics become an issue for intellectuals and community activists, local officials will have to find ways to respond. They might end up “capturing” the discourse for their own political purposes or, unintentionally, in a way that puts them in a difficult position vis-à-vis Moscow.

The state has sought indirectly to both co-opt and suppress discussions of Circassian issues, demonstrating the level of relative importance it assigns to this matter in the lead-up to the Sochi Olympics. However, this discourse can be seen less as a threat to the Sochi Olympics and more as an opportunity to develop a new strategy regarding the Circassian question, as well as to launch a much-needed modernization of the region. Two policy changes can help make this happen. First, the Russian government should take steps to address the main issues of the Circassian world – repatriation and unification. Second, the economic opportunities of the Winter Games should provide social and economic benefits to the North Caucasus regions, particularly to its ethnic republics.

If addressed strategically, the Sochi Olympics can open a new era in the history of the Caucasus by resolving the 250 year-old Circassian question. If ignored, the Circassian challenge will become even greater after the Sochi Olympics, and that much harder to solve.

PONARS Eurasia publications are funded through the International Program of Carnegie Corporation of New York.

© PONARS Eurasia 2009

Source: Eurasian Strategy Project (PONARS Eurasia)

Reflections on the Caucasus: 21 May 1864-2010

Reflections on the Caucasus: 21 May 1864-2010

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I had a dream last night. I can’t tell it to you, because it was in Ubykh,” said the last speaker of the Ubykh language, Tevfik Esenç. When he passed away in 1992, the unique language of the the Ubykh people, the indigenous people of Sochi, where the 2014 Winter Olympic Games will be held, also died. This was one of the consequences of the fall of the Caucasus, which was celebrated by the Russian armies with triumphalism and a procession in the Valley of Kbaada, now called Krasnaya Polyana on May 21, 1864.

What the 21st May brings to the mind of the Adyghes (Circassians), the Abkhazians, and the Ubykhs, who have been scattered all over the world and struggling to preserve their cultures and languages today, must be exile and genocide… But what do experts have to say about 21 May, about the Adyghes, Abkhazians and Ubykhs? And what are their thoughts?

This project is the outcome of a desire of CircassianWorld.com, which has always tried to publicize academic works from the very day of its inception, to provide a platform for academics, researchers, politicians, journalists, and executives of NGOs from various countries to express their opinions about the 21st May, the North Caucasus, and its peoples.

I would like wholeheartedly to thank all of the following people who have contributed to this project proferring their valuable thoughts for inclusion on this site.

Metin Sönmez,
CircassianWorld.com & AbkhazWorld.com
Ed.

The authors were given complete freedom regarding the content of their texts whose maximum length was specified as around one page.  Their views in this project do not necessarily reflect the views of the CW website. The texts have been listed alphabetically according to the names of the authors.

Anssi KullbergAntero LeitzingerAyhan KayaCem ÖzdemirCharles KingDaniel MüllerEiji MiyazawaErol TaymazFethi AçıkelGeorge AnchabadzeGeorgi Derluguian,Georgy ChochievHakan KırımlıIrma KreitenJohn ColarussoKarlos ZurutuzaKemal KarpatKhasan KasumovLaurent VinatierLiana KvarcheliaMark LeveneMax Sher,Michael KhodarkovskyMohydeen QuandourMoshe GammerMuhittin ÖzsağlamMurat PapşuMusa ShanibovNaima NeflyashevaNeal AschersonOliver BulloughPatrick ArmstrongPaul HenzePaula GarbRadosław Żurawski vel GrajewskiRieks SmeetsSeteney ShamiSibel SiberStephen ShenfieldSufian ZhemukhovThomas De WaalWalter RichmondYakov Gordin.

The articles in PDF can be downloaded by clicking here (1.23 MB)

REFLECTIONS ON THE CAUCASUS
21  May 1864 – 2010

 

ANSSI KULLBERG
FINLAND

The occasion of the Circassian Memorial Day on 21 May brings to our minds some of the worst experiences of modern history. It is particularly important to remember the events known as the Circassian genocide in the latter half of the nineteenth century,  because they were fully comparable, both in numbers and in proportions, to the catastrophes that later faced the Armenians and the European Jews, even though only the latter two remain widely known to the  public. Several other nations, who similarly to the Circassians fell victim to the unscrupulous imperial policies, hold memorial days of their respective genocides or atrocities, such as the Chechens in February, the Armenians in April and the Assyrians in August.

Each one of these memorial days refers to similar disturbing developments due to the imperial policies that were endorsed since the late eighteenth century. The Jewish Holocaust is probably the best known example of the consequences that resulted from such policies. However, most of the other devastating events belonging to the same historical series of crimes took place on all the four sides of the Black Sea.

It could probably be said that the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula marked the beginning of a new kind of ethnic cleansing in Europe, with the expulsion and killing of Muslims and Jews in the fifteenth century. This was followed in the seventeenth century by the expulsion and killing of the Moriscos, former Muslims who had at least nominally converted to Christianity. Keeping the Iberian precedents in mind, the era of “modern” genocide in western Eurasia seem to have started on the other side of Europe, during Catherine II’s reign, with the conquest of the Crimea by the Russian Empire in 1783. Long before that the Ottoman Empire, Russia’s southern rival, had already turned the Crimean Khanate into their vassal, but the Crimean Tatars had not been subjected to forceful Turkification or ethnic cleansing as a result.

When the Russian tsarina’s armies took over the Crimea, the Tatars still constituted 98 per cent of the population on the peninsula. Within days from the formal annexation of the Crimea to the Russian Empire – in late April 1783 – thousands of Crimean Tatar intellectuals, noblemen, officers and clerics were arrested, gathered to Karasubazar and executed. The banishment of the Crimean Tatar elite launched a period of systematic policy that aimed at complete destruction of the state structures of the Crimean Khanate as well as the Tatar society and culture. The act was similar in character and intention to the Katyn massacres of 22,000 members of the Polish elite by the Soviet Union in 1940.

The 1830s witnessed systematic and organized campaigns of confiscating and burning Crimean Tatar literature, books and manuscripts. More than 900 mosques and schools were abolished. As many as 75 per cent of the Crimean Tatars fled to the territories of the Ottoman Empire during the first three decades of the nineteenth century. The first half of the nineteenth century also saw the Russian conquest of the Caucasus.

At the time of the Crimean conquest, the prevalence of religious notions over national ones may have contributed to the fact that most Crimean Tatars opted for exile in Ottoman territories rather than large-scale resistance. However, this was not the case with the North Caucasians, who put up a fierce resistance against the invading Russians. Campaigns of terror and genocide as well as fierce resistance took place in Chechnya and Dagestan, where it continued until the capture of the most legendary leader of this resistance, Imam Shamil in 1859.

In 1860, the Russian Empire launched similar policies against Circassians to the west of the Chechens and Dagestanis. Prior to their persecution, the Circassian peoples inhabited and ruled the entire eastern coast of the Black Sea; from the Taman Peninsula to Abkhazia, in addition to the inland areas that extended east to the princedom of Kabarda.

The Circassians, who were fortified in their capital Sochi, appealed to Turkey and the Western powers for protection, but apart from symbolic gestures and references in literature, their appeals were ignored. Hundreds of thousands of Circassians had to flee from the conquered areas to the Ottoman Empire. Many settled in the area of current Turkey, forming a sizeable diaspora there, while others ended up far around the empire, in the Middle East, Iraq, Egypt and the Balkans.

In 1862, the campaign against Circassian populations included use of the notorious “fire and sword” tactics, something similar to what would later be known as “torched earth.” Cavalry units and Cossacks were used to ravage the area, destroying villages, massacring, raping and looting, burning fields, granaries and gardens. Hundreds of thousands of Circassians perished as a result of famine, whilst others died on their desperate trails over the mountains into Turkey.

Russia finally crushed the Circassian resistance on May 1864, although it would still re-emerge many times over the following century, often in tandem with their eastern brethren the Chechens. Within four years, 1860—1864, an estimated one and half million Circassians were killed and around one million ended up in exile, mostly in the territories of the Ottoman Empire. (Exact numbers, as in the case of most atrocities in the region, remain disputed.)

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, similar purges that the Russian Empire had launched in the Crimea and the North Caucasus became increasingly common also in the south of this region in the eastern territories of the Ottoman Empire; increasingly nationalist Turkey launched pogroms and atrocities against the Christian populations of Anatolia, including Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks. Many of the Anatolian Christians were perceived as tools of Russian policies against Turkey, but similar to what happened in the Russian Empire, innocent civilians were branded and targeted, which led to devastating results.

Turks as well as other Muslims of the Balkans and the Caucasus were targeted, too, with hundreds of thousands killed or expelled. When many embittered populations ended up in exile, there were cases where the refugees, in turn, targeted minorities perceived as linked with their enemy, causing chain reactions of revenge. Over the same period Europe also saw the emergence of pogroms against Jews. All this formed a continuous trend over the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, reaching its peak in the industrialization of genocide by the Nazi and Soviet regimes.

Several factions on many sides committed crimes against other populations over this period. Entire nationalities, in areas where Christians and Muslims had previously coexisted for centuries, suddenly became victim to imperial rivalries. It was certainly not necessary to have hundreds of thousands, if not millions of people murdered and expelled for the sake of the general political and military circumstances that have often been used to justify previous atrocities. The great powers that took part in these imperial rivalries bear the biggest responsibility.

Those particular leaders, who were directly responsible for giving the orders that led to genocides around the Black Sea, the Caucasus and Anatolia in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, are no long er alive and cannot be brought to justice, and neither can the individuals who executed their orders. The same is true for the persons responsible for Nazi and Stalinist crimes. The fact that these people are dead should make it even less excusable for current leaders to avoid remembering and acknowledging the crimes that took place in the past, for which they cannot be blamed. Memory is part of human dignity. Therefore, remembering past injustices should not be seen as revenge or conspiracy against the states whose precursors were responsible for so much destruction. History deserves to be known to all.

Yet it raises concern if the issue of acknowledging historical truth is subjected to polling by foreign parliaments, since politicians would vote with limited or biased knowledge, and their vote would in many cases be based on motives qu ite different from historical facts. Many would vote from the platform of religious bigotry or great power rivalry. Therefore, such politicization of historical atrocities could open wounds rather than heal them, and repeat the policies that once led to these crimes rather than serve to prevent them from being repeated.

The least that states and political leaders today should do in respect to recognizing past crimes is to refrain from similar policies. Unfortunately, pogroms, ethnic cleansings and genocidal tendencies are still present in the conflicts of the twenty-first century, resulting in millions of refugees and internally displaced people. What happened to so many populations in the past also does not excuse them, or the states and leaders speaking on their behalf, from waging similar crimes against civilian populations today. National hatred is a dangerous double-edged sword, and therefore when generations change, reconciliation should prevail over revenge. Anssi KULLBERG, Analyst and co-founder of the Research Group for Conflicts and Terrorism in Turku, FINLAND. The article represents the author’s opinions and does not necessarily reflect those of his current or former employers.


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ANTERO LEITZINGER
FINLAND

The Circassian genocide is certainly one of the least remembered genocides in world history. Of course it can not be called completely forgotten, as we would, logically, not be able to recall such a genocide in the first place. It is a universal tragedy, that nations get destroyed or diminished and dispersed throughout history, for various reasons and often with gravest injustice. So, is there something special in the fate of the Circassians, and can it be compared with the better-known repeated massacres of Armenians in 19th and early 20th century, with the pogroms and Holocaust of Jews, or with the erasing of several nations by Stalin?

In all fairness, we should avoid the temptation of a genocide rivalry. Nor should we spend too much energy for body counts or formal recognitions by political entities. Premeditated mass murder or reckless deportations of populations based purely on their nationality, regardless of sex and age or military considerations, is a crime against humanity no matter how long ago it was committed and how many families it affected.

The Circassians were a link in a chain reaction or vicious cycle of genocides around the Black Sea, maybe already starting from the mythical Troian War, but certainly during a century launched by the Crimean War. Their fate was not unique, but to acknowledge this and the historical connections between nations and tragedies in a wider region, does not in any way belittle the sufferings of individual Circassians or make them collectively less important as a study object. Actually, the way Circassians always interacted with neighbouring nations linguistically, religiously, politically, and culturally, stresses the need to understand their role in a broader context, as victims of a long-term homicidal strategy of political expansion.

Time should heal but not erase memories. Descendants of the victims in the 1860s should continue to cherish the memories of their ancestors, but also learn from their experience and teach solidarity between nations in similar circumstances. Instead of just bitterness and exclusivity, Circassians have a history of survival and interaction that deserves some merit. Already before the Crimean War, they had appealed for international recognition of their right to self-determination, and for European intervention. So did the Poles and Hungarians around the same time. Today, many other nations – Chechens, Uyghurs, Tibetans, etc. – may face the risk of (sometimes slower but nevertheless equally tragic) annihilation, and Circassian studies should be of interest for all of them. That way, Circassians of the 1860s did not fight and die in vain, but their example might still save lives by raising important issues of ethics, touching the conscience of distant people, and paving the way for a better understanding and handling of the root causes of genocidal politics.

In a way, reflecting the words of President John F. Kennedy on the Berlin Wall almost half a century ago, we are all Circassians. Antero LEITZINGER. Political historian and researcher for the Finnish Immigration Service. He is the author of “Caucasus—An Unholy Alliance.” He is a history researcher on topics from Russia to Islam. FINLAND.


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AYHAN KAYA
TURKEY

Circassians experienced one of the greatest tragedies of humandkind. Millions of people had to leave their homeland, and thousands of them died during the exodus. The tragedy of exile has always remained intact, being tranmistted from one generation to the other. The despair of exile has given the entire Circassian diaspora disperssed around the whole world from Turkey to the USA a common identity. This is unique to a handful of classical diasporic communities. As someone who worked on the production and articulation of Circassianness in the Circassian diaspora settled in Turkey, I have to underline that I am amazed by the collective memory of the Circassians, and their ability to revive their language, culture and memmory throughout more than one century. Circassians remember the tragedy of the 21st of May every year, and by doing that each time they confirm the sense of belonging to the Circassian community. The flowers thrown into the sea every year on the 21st of May is a way of easing the souls of those people who lost their lives during the exodus in one way or another. I am dreaming of a world free of involuntary and forced migrations. Prof. Dr. Ayhan KAYA. Director of the European Institute, Department of International Relations, Istanbul Bilgi University, TURKEY.


Kabardian Circassians

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CEM ÖZDEMİR

GERMANY

The 21st May is for Circassians around the world a day of sad remembrance of the expulsion which began that day in 1864. It is a day where one recalls all the suffering, but also the fact that the memory of the Circassians and their culture and history has been effectually preservated down to the present day. For this to succeed in the future Circassians have to exert themselves for the preservation of the unique nature of the Caucasus, especially during the Olympics in particular ways. However, they also must argue that all minorities and cultures around the world including their own are protected and recieved and they must fight for the fact that war and nationalism are finished once and for all. Considering that Circassians only know too well which suffering humans can cause towards other humans. Cem ÖZDEMİR, Co-leader of the German party Alliance ’90/The Greens.GERMANY.


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CHARLES KING
USA

Circassians around the world are rediscovering their cultural heritage and reexamining many of the most painful episodes from their past, including the experience of exile from the 1860s forward. The ease of communication–from text-messaging to webpages such as this one–have helped to create a genuinely global Circassian community in ways that no one, not least the Russian officials whose terrible acts helped create the Circassian displacement, could have imagined. Circassians left their ancient homeland as tribes and clans, with primary attachments to particular hills and valleys or to their own lineage groups. But in the early twenty-first century, they are rapidly becoming a globally connected and self-conscious nation. May 21 has emerged as a major rallying point, just as the Sochi Olympics will focus attention on the horrors of imperial expansion and the dispersal of indigenous peoples from the Caucasus highlands and Black Sea coast. Not all Circassians will have the same point of view of these events; any national group is always composed of many voices, some calling for national revival, others calling for Circassians to maintain the ‘‘multi-local’’ identities that they have cultivated for the past century and a half–with connections ranging from Russia to Turkey and from Jordan to New Jersey. It is clear, though, that a strong and patriotic sense of Circassian identity is emerging even despite a long history of exile, assimilation, and cultural change. Charles KING. Professor of International Affairs and Government at Georgetown University. He is the author of the books ”The Ghost of  Freedom: A History of the Caucasus” & ”The Black Sea: A History”. USA.


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DANIEL MÜLLER
GERMANY

My contribution is not (as perhaps some may expect who know me from my contribution to George Hewitt’s book on the Abkhazians) linked to historical statistics or demography; quite the opposite. I want to share a simple observation, namely, how politics has incurably infected the writing and remembering of history including, of course, the remembrance of human suffering. Even professional historians cannot, as a rule, overcome this; sadly enough, most do not even seem to try. The suffering ‘their’ people inflicted is ignored, explained away, belittled, justified, denied – whatever. Surely it takes a rare gem of a human being to be equally disturbed by Sumgait and Khodzhaly. This author for one has never met such a person. Generally, people are either outraged by Sumgait or by Khodzhaly (or, of course, by neither event).

May 21 is a case in point. The lists of people publicly remembering that sad day of exile for the Northwest Caucasians will, then, be full of the names of the usual suspects. Armenians e. g. will be missing because they know that most people expressing solidarity with Muslim victims (although, of course, not all Northwest Caucasians were/are Muslims, in 1864 or today) of a ‘Christian’ power would never dream of joining an April 24 declaration to remember the suffering of Armenians and others in the genocide of 1915 ff.; most or all Georgians and Georgia-lovers (or Saakashvili-paid spin doctors, this being so hard to distinguish these days) will also stay aloof, for as much as they love to see Russia discomfited, their PR frame imperiously calls for the Russian bear vs. tiny Georgia, so that the mere mention of Abkhazians and others evokes the danger of exploding their heartrending fairy tales.

The author’s wish, then, would be for everyone, the Cherkess of the world included, to grant the dignity of victim status to those of the ‘wrong’, politically inexpe dient, side also (including, of course, the Georgian victims of the wars unleashed by Georgia in 1992 and 2008). Dr. Daniel MÜLLER, Research & Teaching Assistant, Institute of Journalism, TU Dortmund University, GERMANY.

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EIJI MIYAZAWA

JAPAN

The more I learn about the Circassian exodus from their historical homelands in the North Caucasus, the less I feel that I understand what was that which really happened. According to some scholars, it was an expulsion, and according to others, an emigration. However, it was certainly one of the most tragic events in the history of mankind, no matter how much multi-dimensioned the process was. Visit any of almost-deserted Circassian villages in Anatolian highlands, and listen to people who say “We’re still being driven out.” You immediately realize, human sufferings continue till today, 146 years after Circassian exodus. May peace prevail in the North Caucasus and the world. Dr. Eiji MIYAZAWA. Visiting Staff, Institute of Asian Cultures, Sophia UniversityTokyo, JAPAN.

 

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EROL TAYMAZ
TURKEY

21 May: A Tragedy to Remember

21 May is a day of remembrance to mark one of the worst human sufferings in the history. The Circassians resisted desperately and fiercely, for more than a century, against the gigantic Tsarist Empire without any organized army and without any significant external support. But this freedom loving nation was deported en masse into f oreign lands following the occupation of their homeland in the mid-19th century. The deportation of the Circassian people was among the largest exodus in modern times. Almost 90 percent of the population was deported, and a third of them perished during the exodus from disease and starvation. 21 May 1864 is the symbol for the tragedy of the Circassian people.

The Circassians who were deported from their homeland were dispersed into various countries, and forced to live under extremely unfavorable conditions. But they have resisted against all odds, and have survived as a people. In spite of a long period of denial and oppressions, the Circassians have never forgotten what they had to live through, and kept alive the memory of their beloved homeland since the day of departure.

The first large scale commemoration in the diaspora was held by the Caucasian Association in Ankara with the participation of many organizations from the homeland and other diaspora countries in 1989. That meeting gave birth to the first ever Circassian organization uniting the Circassian associations separated by artificial boundaries, the World Circassian Association. Although the Circassians were remembering and commemorating the Great Exodus the first time in 1989, they did not consider 21 May only as a day of mourning, but they took is as a day of remembrance, to understand what happened in the past and what they could build in the future. I will follow the same tradition, and share my feelings about what happened in the past and what we could do for the future.

There are three root causes for the current ethnic and cultural problems of the Circassians. The first and foremost important one is 21 May. 21 May is the day of occupation of Circassia and the subsequent separation of the Circassians from their homeland where they lived since time immemorial, and developed their unique language and culture that reflects the history and geography of the Caucasus.

The Circassians were settled all around the Ottoman lands, from the Danube river in the Balkans all the way down to Amman, as a result of the Ottoman Empire’s settlement policy. The dispersion of the Circassians has broken their community links, and made it very difficult to protect and to reproduce their culture and way of life under new conditions. This is the second major factor behind their current problems.

The tragedy of the Circassians alongside with their basic rights have been denied for a long time. The oppression they face with after the tragedy of the Great Exodus made them a muted people. This is the final decisive obstacle for the survival of the Circassian people.

The Circassians have to address all these issues if they would like to survive as a people: they have to guarantee and protect their rights wherever they live in, they have to concentrate their population in the homeland up to a minimum necessary level, and they have to undo historical injustice of the Great Exodus. These are the the tasks for each and every 21st of May. Prof. Dr. Erol TAYMAZ, Member of the Caucasian Center for Strategic Studies (KAFSAM) TURKEY.

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FETHİ AÇIKEL
TURKEY

Towards the 150th Anniversary of the Caucasian Exile

The Russian-Caucasian Wars, which lasted for many decades, ended with wide scale forced deportation of the native peoples of the Northern Caucasus, particularly the Circassians. The wars that resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of Caucasians, is surprisingly not well-known enough not only among the scholars, but also among the world public opinion. The same lack of knowledge is also the case for the rich language and culture of Circassians, which are sadly now on the edge of extinction. Now the Circassians, who were settled mostly in Anatolia, and the Middle East and the Balkans after the tragic events of 1864, live along the peoples with whom they share a new destiny, and without exception, have been actively contributing to the social and political lives of the countries in which they live. Having said that Circassians, dispersed across the world from today’s Russian Federation to Turkey, and from the Middle East to Europe and the USA, unfortunately, did not, or could not make known the sad and almost forgotten history of the forced migration and the tragic human losses resulted from it. This people’s primary goals are to save their languages from extinction, to be known, and to be recognized in a race against time. Their struggle against times is becoming more interesting in the 21st century. While doing that they seem to be very well aware of the fact that these can be achieved not only through memorizing the sad stories of forced migration of the 19th century, but also through constructing stronger cultural-political ties and communication-channels with the peoples with whom they are now living, the Turks, Russians and Arabs. The way to enable this is to devise amicable and democratic approaches without being hijacked by diasporic fanaticism and blind radicalism, and without allowing their consciousness to become dominated by a morbid psychology of mourning and retribution. The diasporic strategies the Circassians are improvising nowadays will succeed, as they also admit, so far as a firm subscription the politics of cosmopolitan citizenship and peaceful coexistence among the peoples of the region is assured. Strengthening the relations between the peoples of the region, particularly between Turkey and the Russian Federation, will further help developing a new awareness of pluralist citizenship without giving up the most humane demands of the Circassians for cultural-linguistic preservation and the recognition of what had happened in the 19th century. It is in this sense that the 21 May presents an opportunity to the peoples of the region not merely a date to commemorate, but also a new invitation for cosmopolitan citizenship, which hopefully all peoples of the region, including the Circassians, will benefit from and contribute to. Fethi AÇIKEL, Associate Professor, Ankara University, Faculty of Political Science, Political Studies and Public Administration, TURKEY.


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GEORGE ANCHABADZE (ACHBA)
GEORGIA

Because of his current work-load, George Anchabadze wishes his contribution to this project to be the 5th chapter of his book ‘‘The Vainakhs (The Chechen and Ingush)’’. The whole book will be published on CW in due course. MS.

The Chechens and Ingush in the Caucasian War

The beginning of the Caucasian (Russian-Caucasian) War is dated in different ways, mainly within the first quarter of the 19th century, though according to our consideration the warfare broke out in the 80s of the 18th century, when uncoordinated resistance to the tsarism exceeded the bounds of separate regions (the  Kuban Region, Kabarda, Chechnya, Daghestan) and turned into an all-North Caucasian movement advancing the precise religious-political slogans.

So, in spring of 1785 a Moslem preacher, Sheikh Mansur, or Ushurma, appeared in Chechnya, who, striving for unification of the highlanders to fight against the tsarist colonialists, called upon them for “hazavat”, i.e., “sacred war” against the “unfaithful” enemy. Thus through Islam taken as an ideological basis, politically separated Caucasians of different tribes partially consolidated in the struggle against the colonial power.

In the Northern Caucasus (in Daghestan) Islam began to spread yet in times of the Arab Caliphate, though for the majority of the native peoples it was established as an official religion considerably later. Thus the Vainakhs inhabiting in the plain and foothill zones of the Caucasus apparently came into contact with this teaching not earlier than in the 15th – 16th centuries; as to the inhabitants of the mountainous part of Chechnya and Ingushetia, the influence of Mohammedanism on the highlanders was rather weak even in the 17th – 18th centuries. As is generally known, in the 18th to the early 19th century the Ingush elders swore not to the Koran but to their pagan gods despite the fact that Islam had already existed among a certain part of the Ingush.

A striking and mysterous person of Sheikh Mansur gave rise to a number of fabulous versions about his non – Caucasian origin as far back as the end of the 18th century. He was believed to be an Italian adventurer (soldier or monk) who had adopted Islam. Some considered him a descendent of Shah Nadir, the ruler of Persia, others attributed him to the Poles. It was also rumoured that he had come from the Orenburg steppes. However, these considerations have been rejected scientifically as having nothing in common with the historical truth. It is proved scientifically that Mansur was Chechen by birth.

Ushurma was born in 1760, in a poor family, in the village of Aldyi (the Chechen Plain). In his youth he pastured cattle and tilled the soil. He got married at the age of 22 and had three children. Owing to his mode of life of high moral standards, wit and strong character, Ushurma was held in high respect by the countrymen even when he was young in years. Although Ushurma was illiterate, he was a brilliant orator and subtle psychologist.

In 1785 Ushurma began an active religious and political activity. Due to his preachings Ushurma became far-famed and enjoyed the support of the influential mullahes and theologians of Chechnya, who declared him sheikh and gave him the name “mansur” which means “victor” in Arabian.

The highlanders, not only peasants and ordinary people but also the representatives of feudal nobility, came from everywhere to listen to Mansur. Apart from the Chechens, among his numerous followers were the Kumyiks, inhabitants of mountainous Daghestan, Adigeys, Ingush, Ossetes, Nogais… The Russian command kept vigilant watch of the processes taking place over the river Terek and in summer of 1785 sent a military unit three thousand strong under the command of Colonel Pierry against the village of Aldyi, where the Imam had his seat, to capture the “false prophet and restore calm and order violated by him in that region”. Having left part of the troops for guarding the crossing across the Sunzha, Pierry and his main armed forces (three infantry battalions and a Cossack sotnia (squadron) with two guns) burst into the aul abandoned by the inhabitants and committed it to the flames. The chastisers failed to find Mansur, but on their way back when moving through the forest, they fell into the ambush laid by the Chechens. Pierry was killed in the battle and it ended in an utter rout of the Russian detachment. According to official data, 8 officers and 414 soldiers were killed, 162 of the enemy were made prisoners and an overwhelming majority of the survived were wounded. The highlanders captured both of the guns.

This victory has brought a great fame to Mansur. The Russians had not been defeated in the Caucasus since their unsuccessful campaign organized against Daghestan in the early 18th century, therefore, the fellow-fighters of the Sheikh did not fail to proclaim the results of the battle to be the fulfilment of his prophecy. The number of Mansur’s supporters and followers was increasing at still faster rates. That was the period of the utmost general enthusiasm.

Striving for exploitation of his success, Mansur assaulted the centre of the Russian domain in the North-Eastern Caucasus, Kizlyar, but the storm was repelled. The highlanders managed to capture one stronghold only, which covered the Terek crossing in the environs of the city. At night the army of the Sheikh got lost in the marshland when, all at once, was attacked by the Cossacks. So, the mountaineers, having suffered heavy losses in killed and wounded, had to retreat.

The same fate befell the mountaineers when taking Kizlyar by storm for the second time and when they were breaking through Kabarda to join the local rebels. In the battle which took place in the vicinity of ancient ruins of Tatartup, the Russian forces defeated the detachments of the highlanders (Chechens, Kabardians, Kumyiks and others) and threw them back. In 1787, Mansur was impelled to flee to the Kuban Region where, at the head of the Adigey detachments he, in alliance with the Turks (the Russo-Turkish war of 1787-1791 was in progress), continued to fight against the Russians, though in 1791 in the battle for Anapa Mansur was captured by the Russians and died in casemate of the Schlusserburg Fortress. (According to another information Mansur died on the Solovetski Islands).

Proceed from the afore-said Sheikh Mansur, or Ushurma, a Chechen from the village of Aldyi, was the first great organizer of the liberation movement of highlanders against tsarist Russia in the Northern Caucasus. The activity carried out under his command, though religious but anticolonial in its essence can be in fact regarded as the beginning of the Caucasian War. Read more… George ANCHABADZE (ACHBA), Professor of history at the Ilia State University, GEORGIA.

 

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GEORGI DERLUGUIAN
USA

Although I am a historical sociologist, let me abstain from analysis and instead suggest a real-life story. Once while visiting Turkey I found myself in the extraordinary company of young men and women who had just graduated from the Turkish police academy. It was supposed to be an academic lecture on contemporary issues such as European integration, transborder crime and human rights. But I could not help wondering whether my audience also realized that my name is Armenian. Yes, they did as became clear from the cautiously asked question: What do you think about this issue of the so-called Armenian genocide? I paused, my heart beating uneasily, and then asked: Please, raise your hands, how many among you here have Circassian heritage? I already knew that it would be probably more than one. Still, the show of hands was overwhelming. More than half readily raised hands, their eyes suddenly glimmering with excitement. The silence was broken and stories poured about the grandmother in a village outside Ankara who still spoke Circassian, about the taste of Circassian cheese and about Circassian dances. Well, I said finally, now I have two confessions to make. First, I grew up on the other side of the Black sea, in the beautiful place where your ancestors had once lived. I love this land which is now my native and some of my best childhood friends were Adyghes. Secondly, my own ancestors were the Armenians from Artvin which is now a Turkish town. How do we feel about all this? What can we tell each other? What would be a humanly decent attitude?Georgi DERLUGUIAN, Professor of Sociology, Northwestern University, Chicago, USA.

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GEORGY CHOCHIEV
NORTH OSSETIA, RUSSIA

May 21, 1864 is not simply a date that ended the long and bloody colonial war in Caucasia… Just as the valley of Kbaada is not simply a name of an area lost in the mountains of the North-Western Caucasus, which was destined to become the site of the last resistance and the last massacre of that war… These are two symbols of the human tragedy of appalling scope that are linked with one another forever. These are the quintessence of a crime, quite calculatingly committed in an enlightened and civilized age in behalf of imperial grandeur of one nation at the price of humiliation of the other and destruction of the unique, nowhere else and never again repeatable culture. These are sorrowful reminders of the event, obviously not singular in the modern history, but unlike most of its ilk, almost forgotten and unknown nowadays in the world, in Russia itself, and even in the Caucasus to some extent. Unfortunately, hardly a great many of those people, to whom Sochi is well known as a beautiful resort and the future Olympic capital, realize or are willing to reflect on why streams, hills, woods and even some settlements in the region still bear such “unexpected” non-Slavic names, seemingly whispering something in native language from the depths of epochs. And for what reason a handful of men and women living among the masses of Russian-speakers in several scattered villages in the coastal valleys between Tuapse and Adler, protect with such persistence and trust their “mountaineer” dignity and the title of Circassians. Or why millions of Çerkez citizens of Turkey and other Middle Eastern countries turn so sensitive and emotional, when another adversity or a new pain befalls the Caucasus. There is apparently something deeply wrong, unfair and calling for correction in all these “mismatches” and “strangenesses”. Maybe a certain error of time and place has occurred: the land bereft of its indigenous inhabitants nurtured and moulded here for thousands of years, and the nation in exile torn from its ancestral soil… It is true that the past never turns back. Nonetheless, we can work to restore what is possible, and to build on this basis a new homeland with a more fortunate and peaceful future. Realization of this noble and humane idea requires unity, wisdom, patience, courage and self-sacrifice. It also requires understanding and cooperation with all concerned parties, who are ready for dialogue. But perhaps above all it requires the memory, including the memory of dates like May 21, 1864… Then we can trust that one day the “error” of history will be overcome, so that the long-suffering ground of North-Western Caucasus will regain its genuine name of Circassia, descendants of the desperate defenders of Kbaada scattered now around the world will reunite freely in their ancestral country, and the peoples of the Caucasus will recover again their brothers that were absent in their home for so long. With a hope of coming true… Dr. Georgy CHOCHIEV, North Ossetian State University(Vladikavkaz), NORTH OSSETIA, RUSSIA.

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HAKAN KIRIMLI

TURKEY

Its intrinsic historical importance notwithstanding, 21 May 1864 marks neither the beginning, nor the end of the Caucasian emigrations. In fact, the emigrations of the Caucasian peoples at large, or the Adyghes in particular, to the Ottoman Empire took place in very significant dimensions before and after this date. Nevertheless, the symbolization of the “21 May” signifies more than a mourning for a long bygone tragedy. By underscoring the “21 May”, the descendents of those masses who had been forced to leave their homelands and who had been deemed to vanish in the course of time, now blare before the world their determination as a dignified people not to get lost in the dark labyrinths of history. For the peoples whose diasporic populations far exceed those remaining in the homeland, such symbols denote the societal unity and memory. Hakan KIRIMLI. Associate Professor Doctor, International Relations, Center for Russian Studies, Bilkent University, TURKEY.


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IRMA KREITEN
UK

May 21 in 1864 was celebrated by the Russian imperial society as a day of joy marking the end of the so-called Caucasian Wars. The festivities held in Akhchipskh in order to commemorate this ‘historical event’ consisted of a church service thanking god for bestowing victory upon the Russian troops, a military parade and a banquet in honor of the royal family and those responsible for the ‘final subjugation’ of the Caucasus. All in all, Russian officials showed themselves extremely proud of their achievements and had high-flying plans for the creation of a ‘well-ordered’, economically thriving colony at the Eastern Black Sea shore. The region was now deemed ready to “enter the blissful path of all-enlivening civilization”. [1]

These enlightenment-informed visions had shown absolutely no consideration for the fate of the local Caucasians. Russian troops had systematically uprooted the Circassian population by the burning of villages, deliberate destruction of the means of subsistence and by military purges, forcing the majority of the Circassians to seek refuge in the Ottoman Empire. At the same time then that imperial society was celebrating its ‘civilizational’ achievements, the tragedy of the Circassians had taken on lethal dimensions with refugees dying in hundreds each day.

My wish is that 21 of May will become internationally known as day of sorrow commemorating the colonial policy of ‘cleansing’ and the willful destruction of Circassian lives and culture. I hope that in the near future it will no longer be acceptable to speak and write of the Circassian exile as ‘voluntary migration’ or to pride oneself on colonial ‘civilization’, and I equally hope that any talk of state rationale and geopolitical ‘necessities’ in this context will be thoroughly discredited.

However, May 21 should not only be taken to commemorate the Russian conquest of Western Caucasus as singular event of high visibility. It should also make us question the cultural context in which these colonial excesses were embedded and from which they arose. That is, if we want to learn a lesson from our colonial pasts for our lives today, we should not refrain from questioning the underlying narratives of civilization as progress and the rhetoric of ‘development’. Ultimately, the Russian proceeding in the Caucasus was nothing but a continuance of pan-European traditions of military conquest and cultural imperialism for which the whole of the ‘Western world’ must assume responsibility. Irma KREITEN, Ph.D. candidate in Comparative Genocide Studies, Southampton University, UK.

[1] Po povodu okonchaniia kavkazskoi voiny. In: Voennyi sbornik 1864, t. 38, No. 8, otd.3, pp. 136-148, here p. 137.

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JOHN COLARUSSO
CANADA

Thoughts on May 21st, 2010. The 146th anniversary of the expulsion of the Circassians, Abazins, and Ubykhs.

The long and grievous war against the Adyghey people and their kin was waged at the height of European Imperialism. In many ways the outcome of the war was foreseeable. The bravery and sacrifices of the Adyghey peoples in the conflict were noble. These were as clear a manifestation of their culture and character as any cultural traditions could have been. A small and divided people, the various Adygheys, resisted a massive and modern European power, Russia, as she expanded across the Steppes. All the advantages lay with Russia. Defeat for the Adygheys was inevitable.


Ubykhs

The war itself represented a marked turnaround in Moscow’s relation with the Adyghey princes, who had for more than two hundred years enjoyed amicable ties with the Tsars.  This changed, however, at the start of the 19th century. The conquest of the Caucasus was geopolitically crucial for Russia if she was going to expand farther into Central Asia. The Tsarist elite seems to have understood this and taken whatever measures were necessary to achieve the conquest of the Caucasus, with the Adygheys forming the last resistance, and therefore suffering the worst consequences.  Russia was not magnanimous in victory. In fact, her ethnic cleansing of the Adygheys was exceedingly harsh and reminiscent of the sorts of annihilatory campaigns waged by the 19th century United States and others nations in the New World.

As with any war of the past the anguish, the screams of suffering and the memories of the dead, grow muted and recede into a distant background. Yet this background persists as a crucial element in the identity of all Adygheys today, both those in the Caucasus, and the vast majority in the diaspora. This anniversary attests to this persistence.  In an interconnected world far different from that of their ancestors the modern Adygheys find themselves still facing a legacy of sorrow and injustice.  Russia has made some amends: the introduction of writing and literature, the formation of small republics, and founding of museums and cultural centres. For brief periods there have even been programs that offered some form of repatriation.  Nothing from Russia, however, has directly address the simple fact of the war and its consequences. It is hard not to conclude that in many ways Russia still fears the Adygheys as much now as she did 146 years ago. With modern warfare such as it is, such fear, real or not, seems absurd, especially for a nation, such as Russia. The need for force in the open plains of western Eurasia has formed an integral part of political and strategic culture of Russia from the inception of the Principality of Muscovy. Clearly the Adygheys, scattered and integrated into many other nations, or fragmented and small in their multi-ethnic republics can mount no serious threat to Russia. The most they can do is mount a symbolic protest, and in a shame culture such as Russia’s, such a protest presents political challenges that the Kremlin seems to find difficult to address.  This is understandable because Russia’s reliance on force has concomitantly led to an impoverishment of her symbolic repertoire and her ability to utilize and assess symbolic action.

Canada is an example of an heir to an imperial legacy, wherein the indigenous peoples suffered. The circumstances of these numerous and varied peoples have changed from that of their ancestors, but their grievances have not all been answered by any means.  The Canadian government, however, heirs to the rich symbolic repertoire of the British Empire, have dignified them with the name of ‘First Nations.’ More tangibly, the full panoply of such peoples, following the example offered by Beijing, was given the place of honour at the Vancouver Olympics. They had a chance, as we say, to strut their stuff and to show the world that they indeed still exist.

The contrast with the upcoming Sochi Olympics could not be greater.  Russia would do well to learn the politics of symbolism from Canada and China, and to use Sochi as an opportunity to extend to the Adygheys a modicum of respect and a gesture of repentance for the wrongs of the past.  In doing this, Russia would elicit from the Adygheys a modicum of gratitude and even of loyalty. She would help the diaspora come to terms with its past and win the allegiance of the Adygheys and others who still dwell in the North West Caucasus. She would do well to keep in mind too that one of the most prominent features of Adyghey culture is loyalty.

If Russia does not make some gestures in this regard at Sochi, she risks giving the Adygheys a free forum in which they can air their grievances to the entire world.  The Adygheys have become a sophisticated people, who have emerged in the past twenty years with an electronic identity through the various media of e-mail and the web.  They are well positioned to present their case. They will surely do so, because another prominent feature of Adyghey culture is memory, especially of wrongs suffered.  In Canada we live with this sort of memory as well: every license plate in Québec says “Je me souviens,” (I remember). The Anglo-French wound still lies festering.  Russia risk creating a new motto for the Adygheys: /segW qéc@&Jez@Je/  ‘I remember’. To leave this wound of memory to fester would be as tragic for the Russians and Adygheys as it would be unnecessary. John COLARUSSO. Professor, Department of Anthropology, and Department of Linguistics and Languages, McMaster University, CANADA.


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KARLOS ZURUTUZA
BASQUE COUNTRY

Keep it up, Abkhazia!

People are always curious. “But why Abkhazia?” they ask.  It is indeed a tough question, not one I can answer in any very coherent way. Before I even start, hundreds of images swirl through my mind. Images of Strabo’s army of 70 translators, Jason’s Argonauts in Colchis, but also the Genoese and the Turks, Keraban the Terrible and Konstantin Paustovsky. Did you know that Paustovsky once got drunk with Isaac Babel in the monastery hostel in Novy Athos?

So I secured my clearance letter, mailed to me as a PDF document, and that granted me Maxim Gunjia’s warm welcoming in Sukhum. And then came that picnic day with Aljasur, a Chechen war veteran from Grozni. “We came on foot from Chechnya to help,” he said, pointing to a mountain path that skirted an achingly beautiful lake called Ritsa. That day I saw offerings to both Ajargi and Ananagunda, two of the Abkhaz old divinities, and learned about local hunters speaking a language that, they said, “their prey would not understand.” Would they dare to speak it in Khabug’s presence? Probably not, for Sandro of Chegem’s old mule was nobody’s fool.

And there was also that Abkhaz superb linguist who spoke every local lingo but also lots of very foreign ones…even Basque! Among a million things he told me was the tale of the Estonians who lived at a tiny village called Salme. Unfortunately, the Estonians had left by the time I first visited Abkhazia.

A bottle of brandy shared with an Armenian painter from Gulripsh and a green eyed Greek sailor from Gagra. We toasted for Hayastan, for Dioscurias, and for many other places that I cannot now recall. But I do remember a wonderful dusk light over a sumptuous Mingrelian meal. That was in Gali.

You have given me so much, Apsny-Abkhazia! Let independence be the tool to keep all your treasures safe and, at the same time, open to the rest of the world! Karlos ZURUTUZA, Freelance correspondent specializing in the Caucasus and the Middle East regions. BASQUE COUNTRY.

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KEMAL KARPAT

USA

The First Landing of the Cherkes in Turkey (Kefken-Kelken)

A few years ago in 2004 the Cherkes Federation [KAFFED] in Ankara invited me to speak about the forced eviction of the Muslim peoples from their ancestral homes in the Caucasus. “Ancestral home” is a word that can cover any period of time extended from a few decades to thousands of years. In the case of the Caucasus it is impossible to quantify the length of time that its inhabitants inhabited the Caucasus Mountains. In fact, many scholars believe that the peoples of the Caucasus are the original inhabitants who lived there continuously for tens of thousands of years and even more. Strabo (b. 63BC) the Greek geographer-philosopher provides (based on older sources) a description of the Caucasian peoples which is similar with the information provided by the more recent, contemporary sources. In sum, the Caucasians, divided into numerous groups and languages, are among the oldest peoples in the world to inhabit their original lands since time immemorial. That was the case until 1864 when the Czarist government after killing hundreds of thousands forced most of the remaining out of their lands. Their forced emigration, which is a typical case of ethnic cleansing, peaked out in 1868 but continued sporadically well into the 20th century. The ousting began after the Caucasian resistance to Russian occupation embodied in Sheik Shamil’s twenty five year rebellion ended in 1859. The Caucasians coming to the Ottoman lands were Muslims and the sole reason for eviction was their Islamic faith which in the eyes of the Czar made them susceptible to the religious-political-military instigation of the Sultan-Caliph in Istanbul. There is no question that the Muslims of the Caucasus held the Sultan-Caliph in high esteem and that thousands had settled in the Ottoman lands in the previous centuries and occupied high social and political positions there. They maintained their ethnic and regional identity as seen in names such as Gurcu Ahmet, Cherkes Hasan, Abaza Selim etc. But there is no proof that Istanbul or Persia planned to use them or their kin in the Caucasus to incite a rebellion against the Czar. The purpose of my brief essay here is not to repeat the information I provided in the lengthy talk to the Cherkes Federation in Ankara which commemorated the first Cherkes landing in Turkey. My intention is to provide a brief description of the commemoration ceremony of the first Caucasian landing in Turkey. The commemoration was organized by the sons and grandsons of the original immigrants who had landed who gathered every year at Kefken one and half a century ago. The commemoration has become an annual event.

The experience was extraordinarily moving for me as I witnessed in person the landing sites, and the profound emotion of the participants. So the rest of this writing will in the form of personal reminiscence of the commemoration at Kefken.

I planned to spend the day after my speech in Ankara seeing old friends and visiting the universities where I had taught. However, in the morning, the driver of the car and his friend who had brought me to Ankara the previous day called to say goodbye before they drove back to Istanbul. They told me that they planned to stop at Kefken on the way back to attend the commemoration at the site of the landing of the first group of Cherkes refugees who had managed to survive the hazardous trip across the Black Sea. This was an excellent unique opportunity for me to visit Kefken, the landing site of the first Caucasian (known generally as Cherkes) refugees in 1864. The landing site is generally known as Kefken, a small ancient port on the southern shore of the Black Sea at about seventy miles east of Istanbul. The actual landing site is an isolated beach at about 10-15 miles north east of Kefken. To reach the beach, the driver left the main highway between Ankara and Istanbul at Izmit and drove north to Kandira a town in the Kocaeli peninsula that stretches for about 70 miles into Anatolia east of Istanbul. From Kandira we drove another 20-30 miles to Kefken and then a few miles more to the landing site. A large number of people had already gathered on the volcanic rocks overlooking the beach when we arrived. The emotions run high. Some prayed, others carried flowers and cried while a few engaged in mournful guesses as to where the ship bringing the Caucasian refugees had stopped and how the refugees managed to reach the shore. The crowd consisted mainly of Caucasian, men and women, who came from all over Turkey, a sure indication that the memory of the catastrophe of being evicted from the ancestral homes and the landing on a bare beach and facing an unknown future was till alive in the minds of the refugees’ descendents. The refugees who landed apparently stayed first in tents then built houses and lived in the area for a while before they settled permanently elsewhere. After seeing the landing site the entire gathering moved to the cemetery. The scene was sad and truly moving. The cemetery is located at some distance inland from the beach. Some of the tombs had inscriptions bearing the name of the defunct while other tombs were unmarked. I presume that the total number of the tombs amounted to more than one hundred. The district administrator (kaymakam) spoke at some length followed by the leaders of the Cherkes community who described the plight of the Caucasians in their original homeland some century and half ago, and expressed their thankfulness for being alive and well in their new home or vatan, Turkey. The sadness and the pain in the faces of the present were aggravated further by dark clouds that had descended on the peak of the surrounding mountains. The commemoration ended with the prayer of the imam and the loud salavat of everybody present. For me a long time student of the forced ousting of the Muslims from the Crimea, Caucasus and the Balkans, the commemorative experience at Kefken turned the theoretically studied tragedy suffered by the Caucasians since 1864 into a human, palpable and real experience that embodied the deep pain still living in the heart of the sons and great sons of the Caucasian refugees. The ceremony continued later with launching of a wreath of flowers into the Bosphorous in Istanbul and other speeches. For me the Kefken remembrance ceremony was an extraordinary and unforgettable experience. Professor Kemal KARPAT. Emeritus Professor of History, University of Wisconsin Department of History, USA.


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KHASAN KASUMOV

TURKEY

The analysis of the sources and literature, the scientific reflection of the obtained data, the adaptation of the corresponding theoretical conceptions and methods of investigation to the history of interrelations on the line Russia – North Caucasus allowed to make a conclusion that the complicated process of formation of a new system of relations of the power and the so called “disciplinary practices” having as well the discourse dimension begins in the Russian empire in the end of the 18th – the first half of the 19th century. The process of differentiation in physical and social space, inspectorate and punishment, discipline and training reveals in the most distinct way in the suburbs of the empire, and in North Caucasus in the particular, where the Russian macropower and macropolitics comes into collision with the quite different types of public, social and cultural relations (quasi-state unions of Central and North-East Caucasus, the highland societies of North-West Caucasus). The objects of colonial conquering and domination so become the aims of new biopolitics of the power (micropower). Such an implicit system of the power leads to the appearance of the complex “power – knowledge” in Russia, which is formed on the level of practices of the power through observation (ethnography, geography, statistics, history), control, differentiating, classification, domination (administrative measures etc.).

Cultural, social, ideological and ethnic foundations of “places of memory” allowed to reveal two main directions in the development of the historiographic discourse about “the Caucasian War” as a social-historic construct: institutionalized history and counter-history.

The historical reality is mediating in the system of historic education, belles-lettres style about the Caucasus, in museums, monuments, architectural constructions, folklore and etc.

Plural “cultural practices” and their systems of signifying in the cultural space which in this or that extent deal with the problems of the concept “Caucasian War” have been studied in this context. Various aspects of functioning of such “cultural practices” have been revealed both in the Russian society and in the societies of North Caucasus. Dr. Khasan KASUMOV. Russian language and literature, Fatih University, Istanbul. Author of the book ‘‘Genocide of Adyghes’’ (Genotsid Adygov: iz istorii bor´by adygov za nezavisimost´ v XIX veke) TURKEY.

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LAURENT VINATIER
FRANCE

‘‘Europeans do not understand us’’. That’s what Sergei Shamba, former Minister for Foreign Affairs and now vice-President of the Abkhaz Republic, told me during an interview last Summer. Indeed he is completely right. Europeans do not seem to see that Abkhazia reintegration into Georgia is simply impossible at least for the coming years. Abkhaz independence reminds me of the Chechen Ichkerian struggle. Europeans should understand that, viewed from the Caucasus, Abkhaz and Chechen (national) fights for independence are absolutely not in contradiction. Dr. Laurent VINATIER. Senior Research Associates, Thomas More Institute, Paris, FRANCE.


Abkhazians who took part in the 1866 Likhni uprising.
Photo by D. I. Yermakov (1867)


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LIANA KVARCHELIA
ABKHAZIA

Do ‘‘freedom’’ and ‘‘independence’’ mean something new today? Are they about controlling one’s own resources only? Many people here would probably say that just like for our ancestors, who were dying for freedom in the battle-field a hundred years ago, freedom is about DIGNITY. Dignity means a lot of things: preserving one’s own culture and language, living in security, having conditions for development, respecting the “others” the way you would like them to respect you, communicating with the rest of the world as an equal, learning from the world and offering one’s own experiences, etc.

Abkhazia’s path to recognition has not been easy. We have survived a bloody war, a decade of sanctions and international isolation. We almost became international pariahs. Not because we were a threat to anybody, but because our persistence to have our own say in defining our destiny, challenged the international world of double standards, in which one’s external loyalty matters more than one’s past or the present. If we want to have a future, we need to realize, that what we have achieved so far is only a beginning. Knowing this and by working hard our way forward, we will pay tribute to our fathers and grandfathers, and create the future for the coming generations.” Liana KVARCHELIA, Deputy Director of the Center for Humanitarian Programs, Sukhum, ABKHAZIA.

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MARK LEVENE

UK

It’s not just popular depiction: historical writing, too, often has a particularly bad habit of parcelling up groups of people into good guys and bad ones, perpetrators and victims. Circassians, when they’re not simply airbrushed out of history altogether, generally end up on the negative side of this equation, the violent bully boys of the Near East, ready and willing to fall on Armenians, Greeks, even Turks, at the drop of a hat.  Historians also have another risky habit of setting down markers: the Aghet, the destruction of the Armenians, for instance is now regularly broadcast as the first genocide of modern times,  as if the story began here and not somewhere earlier. Perhaps most tragic of all in the assumptions we, including historians, often make, is the idea that somehow groups of people were born this way to be killers and the killed, abusers and abused, when actually the truth is so very much more complex. Arnold Toynbee, that now much undervalued observer of the great sweep of history put it well when he characterised what happened to all these communities as the culmination of ‘a prolonged epidemic… from the time when they lost their indigenous civilisations until they became acclimatised to the intrusive influence of the West’. Could it be that the  growing destabilisation and then breakdowns of polities and societies which occurred in the Caucasus and Anatolia in the 19th and early 20th centuries has as much to do with forces working from the outside, forcing peoples into modes of thinking and action which went against their own already well-formed, spiritually-sound and historically tolerant sense of self and other?

The genocidal paroxysm that befell the Circassian peoples in 1864 was thus not self-inflicted. It was an aspect of a military and political reshaping of the world in which the ill-treated survivors had little choice but to adapt to a  social Darwinian framework that was  presented to – and essentially imposed upon them. Brutalised, marginalised, or simply made invisible, the greater purpose of an event such as the 21 May commemoration, must surely be not just towards reconciliation between Circassians and the other peoples of the Caucasus and Anatolia who have suffered so much, but  towards a recognition that home-spun conviviality does not have to begin and end with some defensive idea of the ‘nation’. But this is not just of local issue. The great power struggle for the spine of Central Asia with its dark, contemporary resonances, should be a reminder to Europeans and other westerners of our ongoing responsibility for what happened in the great sweep of  Caucasian, Ottoman and post-Ottoman tragedies from 1864 to 1923 and indeed beyond to the present-day. Facing up to the ugliness of what happened then,  is as much our legacy in the West, as those who belong to this shattered region. Perhaps, in doing so we can all work towards a  political, societal  and indeed environmentally sustainable future in which the goal is  not  living ‘against’ or at ‘the expense of’ but ‘alongside’ and ‘together with’ other peoples. Mark LEVENE, historian of genocide, and co-founder of Crisis Forum  (‘The Forum for the Study of Crisis in the 21st Century’)http://www.crisis-forum.org.uk UK.


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MAX SHER
RUSSIA

As a Russian citizen, I am sure that one day my country, under the current or future government, will show its wisdom and make further steps – quite easy, one must admit – to reveal the truth about the 19-century Circassian tragedy to the broad public, especially that, back in 1994, President Yeltsin has already admitted Russia’s moral responsibility saying in a special statement that the mountaineers’ resistance during the Caucasian War had been a ‘‘courageous struggle for survival in their native land’’. In 1998, the Russian government has lent its support to repatriating Circassians from the war-torn Kosovo to their homeland. It should also be noted that May 21 is officially marked in Russia’s Circassian-populated areas.

I am also sure that Circassians, for their part, will also show their wisdom and will avoid sliding themselves into the position of an eternal victim or turning multi-faceted history into a black-and-white political myth. History must be remembered but the best way would be to focus on the present and future, to self-organize into civil society groups, to spread knowledge, to make education and cultural initiatives, to fight corruption and lawlessness for human rights, rule of law and dignity. Max SHER, Photographer, author of the ‘‘Circassians: a Holocaust in Paradise.’’ RUSSIA.

 

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MICHAEL KHODARKOVSKY

USA

It was by no means obvious from the vantage point of the 1830s that the imperial instructions of September 25th, 1829 prescribing to the commander of the Caucasus Corps, General Paskevich, pacification or extermination of the indigenous population, would indeed be carried out.  Certainly, Fedor Tornau, who understood the Caucasus and its inhabitants better than any other Russian officer, did not share the emperor’s view.  In 1839, after having been rescued from captivity, Tornau was summoned to St. Petersburg to meet Nicholas I.  During the audience, Tornau, skeptical of the emperor’s confidence that the Caucasus would be subdued in three years, had pointed out that even three decades might not be enough to achieve this goal.  Not until much later, Tornau had to confess writing in 1881: “ . . . at that time it never occurred to me that this burning issue would be so favorably resolved by exterminating one half and exiling the other half of the Caucasus’ indigenous population.”[1] A century and half since the Russian annexation of the North Caucasus, an earnest history of Russia’s conquest and rule remains a tabu topic in Russia.  It is like a festering wound that have been covered with a bandage but can not heal on its own.  Sometimes it is necessary to open the old wound, to reexamine it carefully, to consult the patient on the treatment, and to apply the right medicine so that the wound can finally heal, and the sad chapter of the region’s history brought to a close. Professor Michael KHODARKOVSKY. History Department, Loyola University Chicago, USA.

[1] Fedor Tornau, Vospominaniia Kavkazskogo ofitsera (Moscow, 2000), pp. 297-98.


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MOHYDEEN QUANDOUR
UK

21 May is a Day for remembering our tragic losses as a nation and for looking back into our history closely. Yes we should remember, but not with hate and bitter feelings; rather with opened minds, and with understanding of the historical facts, so we can learn from the mistakes that were made in the past.

Yes my heart is full of pain, when I remember what happened to us. I am one of those born in the Diaspora because of the tragedy of our painful forced emigration…

But at the same time, I am proud to say I never forgot who I am and where my roots are. I dedicated myself to share this knowledge with the world; who we are as Circassians. That happened because I grew up with a strong upbringing by my parents as to who I am and what I should carry as my main mission in this life.

And this is the message I want to give to the young generation. We should learn to appreciate our own culture, our own language, each other… and have a belief in our future. Don’t open your hearts for hate or a new conflict, but open it for love for your motherland and your nation, who survived despite all the tragedies and hardships. Keep your spirit and be proud of who you are as a Circassian. You are part of a great past and and the future is in your own hands. Only love and dedication will keep our people alive.

God bless my people. And God bless our motherland. Dr. Mohydeen I. QUANDOUR. Author, Film Director, Composer. UK.


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MOSHE GAMMER
ISRAEL

From the very beginning of its conquest of the Caucasus Russia led what Marc Pinson termed ‘‘demographic warfare’’[1] that is, the transfer of populations from their native lands to other territories.

Such transfers involved two categories of populace. One was populations deemed loyal, which were moved from abroad into the empire. Thus, following the wars with the Qajars (1805-13, 1826-8) and the Ottomans (1807-12, 1828-9) the retreating Russian forces rounded up many Armenians from Anatolia and Iran and Pontic Greeks from the Turkish Black Sea coast and led them into Russian controlled areas in the Caucasus.

The other category concerned populations which resisted Russian conquest and later rule — that is, mainly the highlanders of the Caucasus. Their treatment varied from forced resettlement in the plains, where they could be tightly controlled, to exile of individuals and groups – in some cases entire villages – accused of rebellion against Russian rule into Central Russia and Siberia. In some cases the Russian authorities would have actually liked to carry out what at the present would be called “ethnic cleansing” by removing the entire populace and resettling it in the interior of the empire, but logistics and the then technology rendered it impossible.[2]

The expulsion of the Circassians to the Ottoman Empire was unprecedented not only in the long Russian conquest of the Caucasus but in Russian history in general. First, it involved a huge number of people – between 0.5 and 1.5 million Circassians were forced to leave their homeland. Second, it was the only case of ethnic cleansing perpetrated by Russia in the Caucasus in the nineteenth century.[3] Third, it ran against the Russian tendency not to loose control over the populace, and definitely not expelling populations abroad.

The reason for this reluctance to let people out of its grip should perhaps be looked for in the Mongol origins of the Muscovite state. Moscow rose within the system and in the service of the nomadic Chinghizid state known to modern scholarship as the ‘‘Golden Horde’’. Together with many of its administrative, military and organizational features Moscow borrowed also its political culture and frames of mind from its Mongol masters. Although reshaped and enveloped in other borrowings first from the Byzantine heritage and then from the modern West, these original Mongol mind-sets remained at the root of Russian political culture.

One of these is the attitude to populations. Unlike states of settled societies, nomadic states did not define themselves by territory, but rather by the tribes they controlled. In other words, the nomadic ruler reigned over tribes and they formed his state. The state’s territory was in constant flux since its borders were located wherever the tribes belonging to it wandered. Thus, although territory and fixed borders were central to the Russian and Soviet states, they never abandoned the urge to keep and control the population. That is why the ‘‘Iron Curtain’’ had existed long before the Bolsheviks seized power in 1917.

How come than that Russia resigned its control over, and expelled a large martial population to a hostile country, thus reinforcing an enemy?

The reason lay, probably, in the Russian decision makers’ loss of hope to make ‘‘civilized’’, ‘‘peaceful’’ obedient subjects of the Circassians. After all, they were by far more numerous then the other ethnic groups in the Caucasus. Furthermore, unlike the other Caucasian groups to the east who were landlocked and surrounded by Russian territory, the Circassians had access to the Black Sea and the Ottoman Empire, the Russian blockade notwithstanding. This meant that the solution used in other parts of the Caucasus — to decimate the local population, get rid of the ‘‘most unruly’’ elements and thus ‘‘pacify’’ the remainder — would not work here.

Unable to ‘‘swallow’’ the Circassians and lacking the means to exile them en masse into the empire, the “civilized” Russian authorities under Alexander II would not stoop to ‘‘truly barbaric’’ measures of the times of Catherine the Great that is, to ‘‘merciless slaughter’’.[4] Rather they adopted the ‘‘humane’’ and ‘‘civilized’’ solution of making the Circassians ‘‘an offer they could not refuse’’ — emigrate to the Ottoman Empire. The result of this ‘‘humane’’ solution was the death of dozens of thousands of men, women and children and the exile of an entire people from its homeland. Professor Moshe GAMMER, Dept. of Middle Eastern and African History, Tel Aviv University, ISRAEL.

[1] Marc Pinson, ‘‘Russian Expulsion of Mountaineers from the Caucasus, 1856-66 and Its Historical Background. Demographic Warfare — An Aspect of Ottoman and Russian Policies, 1854-66’’, Ph. D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1970.

[2] Thus, already in the 1780s Count Potemkin (the cousin of Catherine the Great’s famous lover) suggested to transfer the entire Chechen population into the internal parts of the Russian Empire as the only way to crush their resistance and subdue them. This suggestion was repeated several times during the nineteenth century. Only twentieth century technology combined with the brutality of the Soviet Union under Stalin enabled to carry out such ethnic cleansings: during the Second World War five groups– the Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachay and Meskhetian Turks — were deported from the Caucasus to Central Asia and Siberia.

[3] In fact, the Russian conquest of the Caucasus started with not merely an ethnic cleansing but with a full blown genocide. In 1783 Suvorov, Catherine the Great’s famous general, carried out a ‘‘merciless slaughter’’ of the Nogays – the nomads roaming the steppes north of the Caucasus. Stalin’s “deportations” were carried out in the 20th century.

[4] This was the self view of the Emperors and their elite. Nicholas I, for example, was extremely proud of abolishing the capital punishment in Russia, which did not perturb him from sentencing people to run the gauntlet hundreds of times, and thus to a certain death.

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MUHİTTİN ÖZSAĞLAM
NORTH CYPRUS

The 21 May 1864 is conventionally seen as the beginning of “The Great Circassian Exile”, when Circassians were forced to migrate to Ottoman territories by the Russian Empire. But the tragedy of the Circassians is not well known in the world at large or even within the ex-Ottoman territories… During my childhood, my grandfather and my great-uncle used to tell me their family-memories. Those memories were connected with the tragedies they experienced while travelling to Cyprus from their home-regions in the Caucasus… My grandfather always spoke about the death of his great-uncle on board ship before reaching Larnaca (Cyprus). His great-uncle died from malaria, and his body was cast into the sea … We can still hear many such stories from the descendants of the victims of 21 May 1864 now living in Cyprus. But, unfortunately, the descendants have not only forgotten the culture of their ancestors, they don’t even know the historical facts nowadays…But recently the descendants have begun to engage with the culture and the tragedy of their ancestors…advances in technology and possibilities of communication allow people to learn from one another… The collapse of the Soviet Union and also recent events in the Caucasus have facilitated this awareness… Today the descendants of exiled Circassians in Jordan, Syria, Jordan, European countries, the USA and Canada have an opportunity to make contact with the people who live in the motherland (Caucasus), and they also have the opportunity to visit that motherland.

Finally, Circassians have come face to face with their historical catastrophe and tragedy… Now is the time to rectify the negative impact of this catastrophe and tragedy on new generations of Circassians who have lost their mother tongue and culture as well… Circassians have to raise their voices and demand their democratic rights, including return to their homeland, by utilising international institutions and law… But that should not be done by deploying chauvinist discourses… they should also be open for dialogue with the Russian Federation. Dr. Muhittin Tolga ÖZSAĞLAM, Department of International Relations-Near East University, NORTH CYPRUS.

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MURAT PAPŞU
TURKEY

This year is the 146th anniversary of the “Circassian Exile” symbolised by 21 May 1864. “Emigration”, “forced emigration”, “exile” and “genocide”, which have been used successively from past to the present, are also indicators of how the Circassian Diaspora politicized. No matter how it is called, this population movement, the most massive period of which was between 1858-1865, and through which more than one million people flowed to the Ottoman lands, is a great tragedy and crime against humanity whose consequences are still felt today.

A proverb says “One who loses his homeland loses everything”. The Circassians faced the danger of losing everything left by losing their homeland. But, their commemoration of their lost homeland and people even after one and half century later disproves their own proverb in a way. Murat PAPŞU, Researcher-Translator, Editor of the book “Vatanından Uzaklara Çerkesler’’ (Circassian Away From Their Homeland, in Turkish, 2004). TURKEY.

 

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MUSA SHANIBOV
KBR, RUSSIA

The revival of the memory of the events of May 1864 among contemporary generations of Circassians enables us clearly to understand that the Circassians are one of the world’s richest peoples in terms of their great and tragic history and at the same time one of the poorest in terms of awareness of their own history. This is the chief obstacle to our future in the third millennium. For without a shared historical memory a people cannot be united. And a fragmented people is doomed to extinction. Musa SHANIBOV. Former president of the Confederation of Peoples of the Caucasus. KBR, RUSSIA.

 

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NAIMA NEFLYASHEVA
RUSSIA

The Caucasian War, along with the Muhadjir-movement that followed after it, was the greatest tragedy for the Adyghes (Circassians). A people possessed of enormous cultural, intellectual and demographic potential for development, lost not only the greater part of their native lands; their traditions, including the unique institution known as the ‘Adyghe Habze’, which creates among the uniform Circassian ethnos a uniform consciousness, have been deformed, and the social elite, being the basic carrier and the transmitter of these traditions, has either been destroyed or migrated to the Ottoman Empire. Today Adyghes living in Russia face the challenges of globalisation.

Circassian society has become very diffused and segmented; economic difficulties induce people to travel beyond the frontiers of the Caucasus, which, on the one hand, engenders in those who leave a feeling that they are mere accessories to the Circassian world and, on the other hand, generates risks of their assimilation. The traditional tools for exercising social control over Circassian culture have become insufficient to play their time-honoured role.

We are in need of a new, thoroughly modern project to integrate the values of our Circassian culture, to preserve that advantage which has always been peculiar to the Circassians, as is lauded in many literatures of the world, and to be welded into the global contexts of high technology and quality education. Such will be the first step along the path that will allow the Adyghes to define the vector of their future development.  Dr. Naima NEFLYASHEVA, Center for Civilizational and Regional Studies, RAS, Moscow, RUSSIA.

 

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NEAL ASCHERSON

UK

I would like to see the Abkhazian government act more boldly to establish its own contacts and communications with the outside world.  It’s  good to go round Latin America seeking diplomatic recognition. But it would be far more important – for example – to start a regular ferry service between Sukhum and Trabzon, to organise  that service without waiting for Russian approval, to send the first ship and see which navy will try to stop it – Russian, Georgian? The reality of Abkhazian independence is not an abstract  fact but a project made out of the concrete actions which a normal state would take. The government of Abkhazia has a historic opportunity to take those actions,. But this opportunity is not for ever; it is a window which will close after a few years. Genuine, effective Abkhazian independence could begin to free the whole southern Caucasus from its crisis of ethnic confrontation driven by Great Power manipulation. Neal ASCHERSON, journalist, and author of Black Sea: The Birthplace of Civilisation and Barbarism. UK.

 

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OLIVER BULLOUGH
UK

May 21 is a day that should not only be remembered by Circassians, for whom it means destruction and despair. All Europeans should know the date of the continent’s first modern genocide. More importantly though, Russians too should remember it, not because it was when their army won the 19th century’s long Caucasus War, but because it sparked a terrible tragedy. Russian leaders have — albeit, sometimes grudgingly — apologised for the horrors committed under Stalin, but never for those committed under Alexander II. The Circassian nation was shattered by the Russian government, and that is a crime that must be recognised. Until that recognition comes, the victory of May 21 1864 will remain a stain on the honour of a great nation. Oliver BULLOUGH. Caucasus Editor for the Institute for War and Peace Reporting, and the author of Let Our Fame be Great, journeys among the defiant people of the Caucasus. UK.

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PATRICK ARMSTRONG

CANADA

I do not think such commemorations are a good idea because the memory of yesterday’s miseries can lead to tomorrow’s.

Warfare is one of the engines of history – people live in this place and not that, speak this language and not that, have this religion and not that as the consequences of victory or defeat in war. The Circassians lost a long and brutal war and many of them went into exile as miserable refugees. But all peoples have the same past; all have been losers, all have been winners. My own ancestors, Border Reivers, were dispossessed of their lands and driven from Britain 400 years ago. It aids no one to dwell on these past miseries and injustices.

Therefore, commemorations of past tragedies can fuel present disputes that will lead to future tragedies. They should be matters of history to be dispassionately remembered and assessed. These events happened and, in most cases, had the losers been the winners, they would have done the same to their enemies. Patrick ARMSTRONG, Political analyst, CANADA.

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PAUL HENZE
USA

Circassians Have Survived Exile and Division

Circassians fought the Russian advance into the Caucasus five years longer than the great Shamil, who surrendered in 1859. They continued their resistance to the advance of the Tsar’s armies until 1864. The greater portion of the Circassian population was  then forced to emigrate to the Ottoman Empire, where they settled not only in what is the Turkish Republic today but in distant areas such as Jordan and Arabia. A lively community continues to exist in northern Israel, where they still speak their language and maintain their traditions. In Jordan Circassians have important political and military influence. Some Circassian groups managed to remain in their original territories. When he began to divide up the Caucasus into administrative units, Stalin followed a policy of keeping these Circassians divided.  In each administrative division he joined them with other ethnic groups to whom they were not related. In some cases, they were hostile to the groups with which they had to share their regions. It not surprising, therefore, that when the Soviet Union collapsed, Circassian groups became eager to restore close ties among themselves and also to make contact with Circassians living abroad. As a result a strong movement has developed for unity among Circassians, including  restoring linkes with countrymen living in Turkey and elsewhere in the Middle East. Within Russia this movement has taken the form of a campaign to establish a unified Circassian republic where all Circassians live together, cultivate their language and their traditions. Circassians have a distinguished history which goes back hundreds, if not thousands, of years.  They will continue to press Russia to recognize their claim to united status. They deserve success. Dr. Paul B. HENZE. Historian and former diplomat. USA.


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PAULA GARB
USA

This is to express my admiration for the Circassian people and their leaders who have kept alive the language, culture and history of the diverse Circassian groups.  This has been accomplished despite the adversities endured during the wars defending their land, the great exodus from their ancient homes, and life as immigrants for several generations. As Circassians around the world mark the events that brought tragedy and grief to all their families, those of us who have come to know and love Circassian cultures wish success in all efforts to ensure all Circassians access to their homelands and to preserve their distinctive cultural heritage. Paula GARB, Lecturer in Anthropology and Co-Director of the Center for Citizen Peacebuilding at the University of CaliforniaIrvineUSA.

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RADOSLAW ZURAWSKI VEL GRAJEWSKI

POLAND

Polish-Circassian Relation in 19th Century

Till the begining of 1830s the region of Caucasus was not present in the Polish political thought. After the fail of Polish November Uprising against Russia (1830-1831), all the political camps of the so called Polish Great Emigration (ca. 10 000 people – the political, military and cultural elite of the country who decided to go to exile mainly to France and Great Britain) started to look carfully at the North Caucasus, where the Circassians and Chechens were still waging the war against Russia. The main reason of that attention was a presence of about 9 000 of former soldiers of the Polish Army, who after the desaster of the uprising – had been forcibly sent by Russian authorities to fight the Caucasian Mountainards. Their military service in the ranks of the Russian army was the form of persecution and punishment imposed on them after the collapse of Polish uprising. Many information about the numerous desertions of those soldiers which soon reached Western Europe, turned the attention of the head of the right wing of Polish Emigration – prince Adam George Czartoryski on the Caucasus question. The Eastern Crisis connected with the conflict in Ottoman Empire between the Sultan Mahmud 2nd and the Pasha of Egypt Muhammad Ali, produced a seriuos political tension in Russian-British relations especialy after the treaty of  Hünkâr İskelesi (1833). That situation offered to the Czartoryski’s “diplomacy” a possibility of developing its activity unofficially supported by Foreign Office. The Poles in collaboration with David Urquhart and some British Circessophiles menaged to publish “The Portfolio” – the paper that contained a series of Russian secret diplomatic correspondence captured by insurgents in Warsaw in 1830, and many articles against Russian conquests in Caucasus. Count Władysław Zamoyski – the nephew of Czartoryski and the group of Urquhart organised famous “Vixen” expedition to Circessia to provoke even more tention in English-Russian relations and if possible to give the reason for war. From the Polish point of view, the war between Russia and any European power was a precondition of any future uprising in Poland to regain the independence of the country. War in Caucasus offered the hope, that it could be developed into the British-Russian war so necessary for the Polish aims. Still the Poles failed in their attempts to obtain more effective support from Foreign Office for the organisation of Polish detachments created with the deserters from Russian army to fight as the allied troops on the side of Circassians and Chechens against Russians.

Nevertheless in 1844 Czartoryski menaged to send his emissary Ludwik Zwierkowski to Shapsugs. In 1846 Zwierkowski heavy wounded returned to Istanbul. Than Kazimierz Gordon – another agent of Czartoryski was send to Imam Shamil to Dagestan, still he menaged to reach the territories of Ubykh only, where he was killed by a Russian agent. So the attempts to create the direct Polish-Circassians relations in fourthies failed, still Czartoryski was succesful in creating the place to live for Polish deserters from Russian army in Caucasus. In 1842 he obtained a small village at Asiatic bank of Bosphorus where, under the name of Adampol – Polonezköy, the Poles who menage to escape from Caucasus were settled down. This village still exists today and about 40 of its inhabitants still speak Polish.

The idea of the Polish Legion in Circassia came into being not earlier than after the end of the Crimean War. In 1857  the detachement organised in Ottoman empire, commanded by Teofil Łapiński has landed near Circassian village Tuapse. This Legion (about 120 soldiers) fought against Russians in the 1857-1860 campaigns. The last act of Polish-Circassian bratherhood in arms took place during the January Uprising in Poland (1863-1864). On October 1863 next Polish detachement commanded by colonel Klemens Przewłocki was organized and sent to Circassia with the iniciative of prince Witold Czartoryski – the son of Adam George. It fought in Caucasus till March 1864. The anti-Russian armed resistance of bothe peoples – the Poles and the Circassians came to their bitter end in the same time and resulted in national catastrophes in 1864 – the Circassian resistance in Caucasus ended with a massive exodus of the mountaniards to the Ottoman Empire and the failure of Polish January Uprising in Russian part of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commenwealth resulted in the darkest period of persecutions and Russification of the country when the very neme of Poland was forbiden and replased by Russian invented term – the Vistula Country and the Polish language was erased from the schools and the public space. The only place where it was allowed were churches. So the Poles could pray in Polish and both the peoples – Poles and Circassians believed and still believe that God is great – greater than Russia. Radosław Żurawski vel GRAJEWSKI, Professor of Lodz University Ph.D. Author of the in Polish: Wielka Brytania w “dyplomacji” księcia Adama Jerzego Czartoryskiego wobec kryzysu wschodniego (1832-1841), Warszawa 1999, (Great Britain in the “diplomacy” of prince Adam George Czartoryski towards the Eastern Crisis (1832-1841). POLAND.

 

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RIEKS SMEETS
NETHERLANDS

21 May is in an appropriate occasion to remember the Ubykh, who have been hit worst of all peoples involved in the Caucasian War. Their numbers, which were initially already lower than those of their immediate relatives, were first reduced dramatically by the losses inflicted during the defense of their homeland, then during the exode and its aftermath, and again during the turbulent period in Turkey following the First World War. The survivors lived in a few pockets of villages dispersed over distant Turkish vilayets, which left their language with little chances for survival. Many Ubykh gradually  assimilated to things Circassian and all of them eventually developed into Turkish citizens cherishing their Ubykh(-Circassian) descent. Thanks to men like Uslar, Dirr, Mészaros, Dumézil, Vogt, Charachidzé and other linguists, and thanks to Tevfik Esenç, the last speaker and guardian of the language of the Ubykh, the language as well as oral traditions and many aspects of the social and cultural practices of the Ubykh were well documented.

While the other North-west Caucasian languages, Adyghe and Kabardian and Abkhazian and Abazinian, outside the Caucasus area are severely endangered, with most states concerned not promoting actively  minority languages, this day also invites us to take stock of the actual situation in the Caucasus itself. There – nowadays – the situation seems most promising for Abkhazian, with the Abkhazians having taken irreversibly the future of their language in their own hands.

For Adyghe and Kabardian, as for Abazinian, the situation is more complicated and the recently published Unesco Atlas of Endangered Languages marks the status of all of them as vulnerable. In spite of the losses caused by the Caucasian War, the situation cannot be characterized as hopeless, which is largely due to positive effects of early Soviet language policies. Concerted efforts from authorities, local organizations and institutions are needed to help these languages regain their impaired viability. A thorough analysis of the actual situation, and the development and execution of policies aimed at the promotion and safeguarding of these languages, may help them, and the cultural expressions expressed through them, survive and further develop. If Kabardian, Adyghe and Abazinian are no longer intensively transmitted within the family, if they are not given fully-fledged roles in public life, education and the media, one may fear that these languages will survive in the Caucasus only by a few generations more than in the Diaspora. Dr. Rieks SMEETS. Linguist and expert in cultural heritage. He is the first secretary of UNESCO’s Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. NETHERLANDS.

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SETENEY SHAMI
USA

On Commemorations and Nations: A Brief Note on Remembering May 21, 1864

In the life of nations, commemorations can be seen as “coming of age” rituals that mark and symbolize stages of maturation. Commemorations have been described as the process by which nations come to know themselves.

It is remarkable how widely and deeply May 21 has become established as the principal commemoration event for Circassians across their far-flung localities. Small or large, Circassian communities now mark the day in various ways that work to validate three important dimensions of the Circassian experience today: the memory of the homeland, the significance of local community and the embrace of the diaspora. It is interesting and, I believe, important to pay attention to the ways in which this day is being organized in the different Circassian localities as well as how it is represented virtually on the worldwide web. The content of the activities organized and the speeches made are an important articulation of the state of the diaspora/nation.

Much has been written by historians and social scientists about the nature and importance of commemorations for nations: they are simultaneously symbols and events; collective and personal; political and cultural. Most importantly however they are both about the past and the future. The way in which the past of a nation is remembered is instrumental in the making of its futures. Therefore, while marking with grief the dispersal of the Circassians from their homeland, let May 21 also represent the joy of a nation that is coming to know itself. Seteney SHAMI, Social Science Research Council, Eurasia Program DirectorUSA.

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SIBEL SIBER

NORTH CYPRUS

My mother was very beautiful. I remember her vaguely. She was tall and had big, green eyes. She had long dark hair coming down to her waist. During the Great Circassian Migration, my mother and father, together with their two children, set sail for the unknown.

They were forced to abandon their homeland, leaving behind their roots, memories and everything they possessed. In spite of all the suffering they had gone through, they never lost their hope. Because, they knew that losing hope was synonymous with death. As they sailed for the unknown, trying to hold on to life in boundless seas, diseases arouse in their vessel. Hunger, misery, diseases and death were following them.

This is how my great grandmother used to recount her memories of the Circassian migration. She was a little child during the migration but had suffered the greatest of pains that left deep scars in her life.

Her beautiful, long dark-haired mother also got sick. My grandmother’s eyes used to become foggy while telling the story… “I was only four years old but I remember them throwing her into the sea… Her long dark hair entangled with the waves… Those on the ship watched her lifeless body until it disappeared… I remember weeping with my brother on our father’s lap… I was furious and outraged, crying ‘Why did you throw my mother into the sea?’

She then remembered coming on land on her father’s shoulders. They had continued their journey of hope without her mother. In spite of all the hardships, the father and the two children had managed to hold on to life on a small island (Cyprus) very different from their homeland.

This is the story she used to tell us. And I used to visualize that ship and my beautiful, long-haired Circassian great-grandmother in my head. Although living through is always much more painful than the stories told, I could feel the magnitude of the pain suffered by the Circassian people. Dr. Sibel SİBER, Member of Parliament, Republican Turkish Party (CTP, Left Wing), NORTH CYPRUS.

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STEPHEN SHENFIELD
USA

Let us remember not only the Circassians and Ubykhs but all who have been dispossessed, massacred, colonized, enslaved, or driven from their homes — in the name of race or religion, civilization or progress, geopolitics or security (not for them), history or destiny, “population exchange,” economic development (not theirs), revenge or redemption (for wrongs not committed by them) — or simply for sport. Let us remember especially those who were wiped out to the last man, woman, and child: the indigenous Tasmanians, the Taino and Arawak of the island the conquerors called Hispaniola.

What is done cannot be undone: all our tears shall not wash out a word of it (Omar Khayyam). Few of the victims, and none of those who suffered worst, are still here to be compensated. So why do we remember? We remember in order to claim and mourn the victims as our own. We remember in order to restore their good name, for the conquerors justified themselves by insulting and defaming their victims. We remember in order to curse the memory of the conquerors, even if — especially if — the conquerors were our own ancestors. And we do all these things in order that the conquest should stop, to preserve the little that is still left to preserve.  Stephen SHENFIELD. Independent researcher and translator. Editor of JRL Research & Analytical Supplement. USA.

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SUFIAN ZHEMUKHOV
KBR, RUSSIA

Майм и 21

(«Псэм и т|асхъап|э» усэ тхылъым щыщ)

Дэпщэщ мы щ|ым щызэщ|ифынур

Уэлбанэ лъыпсу зыуфэнщ|ар?

Тенджыз Ф|ыц|эжьым щитхьэщ|ынур

Хьэдэ лъэмыж абы телъар?

Къэтэджыжынукъым ди л|ахэр,

Сабырщ толъкъунхэр, яжьэр псыфщ,

Ит|ани нэпс мыгъущыжахэр

Уэлбанэ дыгъэм иримыф.

Т|эк|у нэхъ дысакъыу зедвгъэгъасэ

Щыди|эк|э дыщ|эщыгъуэн.

Тхьэм дяпэк|э дыхуимыгъазэ

А гуауэр тщызыгъэгъупщэн.

Жэмыхъуэ Суфян, адыгэ щ|эныгъэл|, усак|уэ

Sufian ZHEMUKHOV, Circassian scholar and a poet, KBR, RUSSIA.

May 21st

(From the poetry book ‘‘The Soft Spot of the Soul’’)

When will the earth of this land be able

To swallow up the bloody drizzle that drenched it?

When will the Black See be able

To wash away the bridge of corpses that was laid down upon it?

Our dead will not rise up again.

The waves are quiet, and the ashes are wet.

And yet the scorching Sun

Cannot dry up our tears.

Let us train ourselves to be more sensitive.

Let us mourn the tragedy we now have.

May the future not bring us a grief so great

That it should overwhelm our present sorrow!

Translated by John Colarusso


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THOMAS DE WAAL
USA

May 21 2010

History is full of black spots and absences. Acts of commemoration and memory are all about honouring those who have fallen into these black holes of collective oblivion. When Hitler reportedly said “Who speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?” he was trying to invoke an executioner’s prerogative to have his victims forgotten.

Who remembers the Circassians? Theirs was a name that was readily recognizable to much of the world a century and a half ago but sadly that is no longer true. So it doubly important on May 21 to remember the hundreds of thousands of Circassians who were deported from their homeland and killed by the Russian imperial government in 1864 and subsequent years. The guilt of Russia is shared by many others. My own country, Great Britain, gave the Circassians unrealistic promises and then forgot about them—and it has many acts of colonial mass murder on its conscience too. What happened to the Circassians is far too little known by the wider world. I would like to see monuments to those who suffered placed along the Black Sea coast and for Russia’s leaders to give orders for this missing page to be put into Russia’s history books. Collective remembering can help soothe this big historical wound. Thomas De WAAL, Senior Associate, Caucasus, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, USA.


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WALTER RICHMOND
USA

Having thoroughly examined all the records, reports and memoirs written by eyewitnesses and the architects of the actions of the Russian Army in Circassia in the 1860s, I can come to no other conclusion than that the Russians committed genocide against the Circassian, Ubykh, and Abaza peoples. Attempts by Russian scholars and, unfortunately, at least one American scholar, to portray it as a regrettable miscalculation by General Nikolai Yevdokimov and his staff are easily refuted by the General’s own words and actions, as well as the eyewitness reports of the officers involved in the deportation. Historical accuracy demands that the current Russian government recognize the actions of the Russian Imperial Army in the 1860s against the Circassians, Ubykhs, and Abazas as genocide, and Yevdokimov should be labelled a war criminal. Walter RICHMOND. Assistant Professor of Russian Area Studies, Occidental College, Los Angeles, USA.

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YAKOV GORDIN
RUSSIA

It can be said with certainty that — until Stalin’s deportation of the repressed nations — there was no civilizational and demographic disaster in the modern history of Russia and Europe comparable with the expulsion of the Circassians of the Western Caucasus from the places where they had lived for many ages.

This monstrous deed, the chief ideologue and executor of which was General Yevdokimov, who persuaded Tsar Alexander II of its expediency, was carried out in opposition to the opinion of thoughtful military intellectuals such as General N.N. Rayevsky, Junior, commander of the Black Sea line, and General Filipson, chief of staff of the Caucasus Corps.

The Western Caucasus was depopulated. This deed was not only an act of criminal cruelty; it was also deeply inexpedient even from the point of view of the Russian state. The mass colonization of the Western Caucasus was a failure. An ancient and unique civilization was destroyed. Russia deprived itself of hundreds of thousands of people who under a rational policy could have become its citizens, shared with Russia their special experience, and, in particular, contributed hardy and courageous soldiers to its army.

It is time to draw conclusions from this bitter experience. Yakov GORDIN. Writer, historian, author of books on Russian history. RUSSIA.

The articles in PDF can be downloaded by clicking here (1.23 MB)

© Circassian World

Tevfik Esenç – the last person able to speak the Ubykh language

Tevkif Esenç
The Last Ubykh

He was the last person able to speak the language they called Ubykh

Tevfik Esenç (1904 – October 7, 1992) was a Circassian exile in Turkey and the last known speaker of the Ubykh language.

Esenç was raised by his Ubykh-speaking grandparents for a time in the village of Haci Osman  in Turkey, and he served a term as the muhtar (mayor) of that village, before receiving a post in the civil service of Istanbul. There, he was able to do a great deal of work with the French linguist Georges Dumézil to help record his language.

Blessed with an excellent memory, and understanding quickly the goals of Dumézil and the other linguists who came to visit him, he was the primary source of not only the Ubykh language, but also of the mythology, culture and customs of the Ubykh people. He spoke not only Ubykh but Turkish and the Hakuchi dialect of Adyghe, allowing some comparative work to be done between the two languages. He was a purist, and his idiolect of Ubykh is considered by some as the closest thing to a standard “literary” Ubykh language that existed.

Esenç died in 1992 at the age of 88. The inscription that he wanted on his gravestone read as follows: This is the grave of Tevfik Esenç. He was the last person able to speak the language they called Ubykh.

Ubykh sample sound file (Spekar: Tevfik Esenç, Recorded by Georges Dumézil / Lacito Data Archive)

LACITO Data Archive – Ubykh Records, Lacito Archiving project


In memoriam: Ubykh (Tevfik Esenç)

Martin Haspelmath, Freie Universität Berlin, 1993-06-09

Perhaps it is not inappropriate to post not only obituaries of linguists, but also obituaries of languages.

Since October 7, 1992, when its last native speaker (Tevfik Esenç) died, the north-western Caucasian language Ubykh must be considered extinct.

The fate of Ubykh is particularly sad not only because of its structural peculiarities that make it so interesting for us linguists, but also because its extinction is the final result of a genocide of the Ubykh people. Until 1864 they lived along the eastern shore of the Black Sea in the area of Sochi (north-west of Abkhazia). When Russia subjugated the Muslim northern Caucasus in the 1860s, tens (or hundreds?) of thousands of people were expelled and had to flee to Turkey, no doubt with heavy loss of life. The entire Ubykh population left its homeland, and the survivors were scattered over Turkey.

Our knowledge of Ubykh owes particularly much to Georges Dumézil (La langue des Oubykhs. Paris 1931) and Hans Vogt (Dictionnaire de la langue oubykh avec introduction phonologique. Oslo 1963). Until recently, the last native speaker, Mr. Tevfik Esenç worked with several linguists so that as much as possible of his people’s language could be recorded. The 1991-92 (No 6-7) issue of the Revue des Études Georgiennes et Caucasiennes was dedicated to Tevfik Esenç.

The most striking structural feature of Ubykh is/was its large consonant inventory, consisting of 81 segments according to John Colarusso (“How many consonants does Ubykh have?”, in George Hewitt (ed.) Caucasian perspectives. Unterschleissheim: Lincom Europa, 145-55). To elucidate some of its puzzling features, Mr. Esenç even allowed himself to be x-rayed while articulating. For many years Ubykh was thought to be the world record-holder of consonant inventory size. Now it seems that some African languages surpass Ubykh in this respect, but still, Colarusso remarks, “any rigorous account of human phonetic percepual capacity will have to take into accountthis precious marvel, Ubykh”. This precious marvel is now lost forever.

Tevfik Esenç 1982


Language will die with man now 82
By John-Thor Dahlburg, the Associated Press., ca. 1987.

BANDIRMA, Turkey – When 82-year-old Tevfik Esenç dies, what linguists say is the world’s rarest living language will become a dead one.

A century and a half ago, the Oubykh language belonging to the Caucasian group of languages was spoken by as many as 50,000 Oubykh tribesmen in the Caucasus valleys east of the Black Sea.

Now a frail farmer in Turkey is the last known speaker, and language scientists visit Esenç in a hamlet in Asia Minor to register his every word.

“Because Oubykh today is just one man and he will one day disappear, all of this fuss may appear trivial, even useless,” said Georges Dumézil of the Académie Française, who has studied Oubykh and other Caucasian tongues for more than 50 years. “But from a scientific point of view, each and every language has great importance.”

For researchers like Dumézil, Oubykh’s fascination lies in its extreme variety of sounds, or phonemes. English has about 30 different phonemes, while Oubykh boasts more than 80, including four different pronunciations of the twinned letters “sh.”

There are 82 consonants, but only three vowels. Transcribers have had to use both Greek and Latin letters, plus some signs of their own invention, to capture the wealth of sounds.

“Oubykh is doubly interesting, first because only one person still speaks it, and second because there is that huge number of phonemes,” said Dr. Luc Bouquiaux, deputy director of the Paris-based Laboratory for Languages and Civilizations of Oral Tradition.

It was the French center’s 40 researchers who identified Oubykh as the world’s rarest language – “unquestionably the rarest because there is only one man who can speak it,” Bouquiaux said.

The Caucasian tongue is also “among the richest, if not the richest, language we know in terms of the sounds you have to make to speak it,” Bouquiaux added.

Oubykh’s decline started with the exodus of the Moslem herders and farmers from czarist Russia in 1864 after the Crimean War, and their resettlement in Ottoman Turkey near the Sea of Marmara.

There, the need to speak Turkish to be understood, plus competition from other Caucasian languages, made a knowledge of Oubykh useless. Today only Esenç has complete mastery of the tongue, though four or five other tribal elders still remember some phrases.

“No one is really responsible for the death of our mother tongue,” said Esenç in a recent interview in Bandirma, speaking Turkish through an interpreter. “It happened because of our poverty, and our being dispersed several times by the Russian czars and the Turks.”

To preserve as many scraps of the dying language as possible, linguists have taken Esenç to Oslo and to Paris, where he has been four times. Others have trooped rutted tracks to the farm village of Haci Osman where the last of the Oubykh speakers lives in a hut with a dirt floor.

When Esenç dies, Dumézil said, “much will be lost. But much has already been saved, and unlike ancient Greek or Latin, we have Oubykh speakers on tape.”

There is no chance, scholars and native speakers agree, of resurrecting Oubykh as a living language.

“Turkish authorities aren’t interested, and our own young don’t want to learn it,” Esenç said. His three sons are incapable of carrying on a conversation in their father’s tongue.

Scholars praise the cooperation of Esenç and other villagers in helping them pierce the mysteries of the dying language before it is too late. “Tevfik immediately understood the importance of helping us,” said Dumézil, who has thousands of Oubykh words inscribed on file cards awaiting incorporation into a French-Oubykh dictionary.

Esenç hopes to die where he was born – in the hilly village of Haci Osman near Bandirma. He says he already has written the inscription he wants carved on his tombstone of white marble:

“This is the grave of Tevfik Esenç. He was the last person able to speak the language they called Oubykh.”

Photo credits:

Tevfik Esencc at 57, from Georges Dumézil. 1962. Documents anatoliens sur les langues et les traditions du Caucase. Vol. 2: Textes Oubykhs. Paris: Institut d’Ethnologie.

Tevfik Esenç at 82, from Associated Press, printed in The Arizona Daily Star, 1987.

The Circassians: A Forgotten Genocide?, by Stephen D. Shenfield

The massacre of the Circassians, a forgotten people, serves as the subject of Stephen D. Shenfield’s essay. The Circassians were forced to resettle after the tsarist conquest of their territory. Their homeland rested in the northwestern Caucasus and on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea–along the southern border of the Russian empire. Before the Russian invasion, Circassia possessed two million people and an area of 55,663 square kilometers. They fought against Russian invasions from 1763-1864 and ultimately were defeated, with many Circassians being deported to Turkey. The decision to deport the Circassians came in 1860; the Russians invaded from the north, accompanied by mobile columns of riflemen and Cossack cavalry; four thousand Circassian families left for Turkey. In 1862, Russian soldiers burned Circassian villages and trampled the crops; those who fled died in the forests and mountains of hunger and exposure. The Russian General Babich took his soldiers south, burning Circassian villages along the way. In May 1864, the remaining Circassians bonded together in a frenzied battle and emerged triumphant over the Russian invaders; the victory, however, proved to be short-lived because the Russians returned with more artillery and soundly defeated the Circassian men and women; dissatisfied by only killing the Circassian adults, the triumphant Russian soldiers sought out the children and shot cannon shells at them.

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The text by Stephen D. Shenfield is taken from the book ‘The Massacre in History’, edited by Mark Levene and Penny Roberts, published by Berghahn Books (www.berghahnbooks.com), Oxford and New York. 

© 1999 + 2009 Stephen D. Shenfield and Berghahn Books, Oxford.

Travels in Circassia, Krim Tartary, Etcetera, by Edmund Spencer, Esq

Selections from

Travels in Circassia, Krim Tartary, Etcetera

by Edmund Spencer, Esq. (originally published in 1837)

AMONG THE CRIMEAN TARTARS

UPON ENTERING CIRCASSIA PROPER

CIRCASSIAN LIFE AND CUSTOMS

IN TIME OF WAR

ANCIENT TOMBS

CLIMATE AND WILDLIFE

GIVING AND TAKING IN MARRIAGE

AND ETCETERA: CRIME, PUNISHMENT AND EDUCATION

RELIGION AND FOLKLORE

MEDICINE

A CIRCASSIAN GIRL SEIZED BY CLAIRVOYANT FITS

*****

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– Travels in Circassia, Krim Tartary, &c – 1837

– Travels in Circassia, Krim-Tartary, &c. including a steam voyage down the Danube, from Vienna to Constantinople, and round the Black Sea, in 1836 – 1839

AMONG THE CRIMEAN TARTARS

. . . The shades of night had just set in as we arrived at a considerable Tartar village, called Kokkos, where we were most hospitably entertained by a rich mourza, who slew a young kid for the occasion, and treated us, in addition, with several other eastern delicacies. There were the never-failing pilaff, the chichlik and kefti, together with tarts and preserved fruits of various kinds. Our beds were also those common to the children of the East – mattresses laid on the floor, with cushions and coverlets. The next morning, at day-break, our coffee and tchibouques were ready; and, after making another hearty meal, we recommenced our journey, not a little gratified with the kind reception of our hospitable host, and also with the extreme cleanliness of every object with which we came in contact.

Our route lay through a fertile valley, watered by the Kabarda, a considerable stream; the road was tolerable, and the scenery, if not beautifully picturesque, at least novel, which epithet was also applicable in an especial degree to the costume and manners of the inhabitants. The rocks which skirted the valley, jutting up perpendicularly, and of an equal height, formed a perfect natural fortification! ; appearing, in one place, as if chiselled by the hand of man, and in another resembling piles of gigantic books laid on the shelves of a library. The fields were filled with men, women, and children, either reaping the corn or engaged in some other agricultural pursuit. Here we saw the moullah, with his snow-white turban; the mourza, in his braided coat and cap; together with the peasant, attired in his light jacket, wide trousers, fur cap, and sandals. In the distance might be seen the shepherd, with his long crook, seated on a cliff, surrounded by his bleating flock, and extracting most doleful melody from his pipe.

Then the women were certainly striking objects, wrapped completely in the ample drapery of the white ferredge, which gave them not only a graceful, but a coquettish air. Sometimes a youthful dame condescended to present us with a glimpse of her gazelle eye ; but, finding she was observed, again imprisoned her pretty captives behind the folds of her veil. Camels loaded with heavy packages, and looking most serious and important, silently and slowly paced along the road ; and, that music might not be wanting, we were continually greeted with that most inharmonious of all sounds, the creaking of the Tartar waggons: these, being made entirely of wood, and never greased, formed, when proceeding in trains, a concert of discords which no traveller whose ears have sustained the shock will ever forget.

The appearance of the Tartar villages at a distance is very singular, having much the effect of rabbit-holes. This you will readily believe, when I say that they are generally built on the brow of a hill, or burrowed into its side ; and, owing to the circumstance that they consist only of one story, with a single facade, their flat roofs being level with the earth above. I more than once found myself walking on the top of a range of houses, without perceiving my error.

The interior of these odd-looking dwellings was correspondingly original. Here sat the men and women, in true Asiatic style, on the floor, smoking their long pipes; or, by way of cool variety, on the house-tops, or beneath the little verandas, to catch the few breezes as they passed. The children, with their hair, eye-brows, and finger-nails dyed red according to the most approved notions of Tartar beauty, were playing about without any clothing to impede the freedom of their movements; their little heads often decorated with a profusion of coins, and various amulets to preserve them from sorcery, the evil eye, &c.

Rich Karaite Jews, and Armenians in their peculiarly splendid costume, ambled along on their well-fed mules: these were diversified by considerable numbers of Swabian colonists, in precisely the same close cap, short petticoats of many folds, red stockings, and high-heeled shoes, that we find in Swabia in the present day; neither must I forget to insert in my catalogue the gypsies, who, unhappily for the Crimea, are too numerous. They are the musicians, showmen, professors of great and petty larceny; in short, the worst part of the population.

Several of the villages through which we passed were exceedingly rural: a running stream was, almost invariably, the accompaniment; for water, in this parched country, for the purpose of irrigation, is indeed a blessing. Oak, beech, wild pear, cherry, and crab trees, lined the sides of the cliffs, springing out of every fissure in the rocks; and the valley itself teemed with orchards, green meadows, and corn-fields, occasionally interspersed with the mulberry, fig, pomegranate, apricot, poplar, and walnut trees, whose luxuriant foliage not only formed beautiful and fragrant canopies, and protected us from the scorching rays of the sun, but imparted to the little cots a pleasing appearance of great fertility. The walnut-tree is very popular with the Tartars; for, as it grows here to an enormous size, we every where find it throwing the broad shade of its wide-spreading foliage over their humble abodes.

. . . Like all Asiatic people, the Tartars shave the head : this more in compliance with ancient custom than in obedience to any precept found in the Koran. It cannot be to keep the head cool, for they are never without two or three caps, and, even in the midst of summer, wear a hairy one of lamb’s-skin or fur. A fine head of hair is much valued by the women, and admired by the men ; consequently, every attention is paid to encourage its growth ; and if they do not like the colour, there are no people better acquainted with the art of changing it to their taste. The young men only wear mustachios, not allowing the beard to grow before they attain the age of forty ; this, when luxuriant, is considered a great ornament : and as the man who aspires to the honour of wearing a full flowing beard must be exemplary in his conduct, zealous in his devotions, and feel conscious that he is a man of superior judgment, it is not often adopted. The man with the longest beard being, according to Tartar custom, placed by common consent in the highest position in society, his counsel sought, and his decisions bowed to; should he, therefore, be deficient in wisdom and experience, he entails upon himself the ridicule and contempt of his neighbour. He is also liable to have his beard pulled in the event of a quarrel – the greatest disgrace that can befall a Mussulman.

The Russian government have most laudably established schools in every town and village inhabited by the Tartars; but being left in the hands of the moullahs, whose sole object, from selfish motives, is to retain the people in ignorance, fanaticism, and superstition, they have not had the desired effect of improving the people. The language of the Tartars, which is difficult to learn, sounds harsh and unpleasant, and bears a near affinity to the Turkish. When designating the peculiar character of their language, like all Oriental nations, they say that the serpent in tempting Eve made use of the deceitful Arabic; when our first parents told their soft tales of love they adopted the mellifluous Persian ; and when the angel expelled the unhappy pair from Paradise, the mandate was given in Turkish.

. . . Their musical instruments consist of a species of lute with only two strings, called a balalaika, and a Turkish drum. Shepherds make their own pipes; but they do not excel in musical performances any more than their brethren. Neither sex dance. The men amuse themselves in riding and hunting; the young, in wrestling and running for a wager, and, during the long winter evenings, in playing chess, or relating traditionary stories.

The greatest delight of the women consists in dressing themselves in all their finery, and paying a visit, for several days, to their neighbours or relatives who reside at a distance. For these ceremonious excursions the madjar (carriage) is put in requisition, generally drawn by buffaloes. The matrons smoke their pipes and discuss scandal, while their daughters amuse themselves in swinging or embroidery, in which latter accomplishment all the Tartar women excel.

Smoking appears indispensable to the existence of the whole Tartar race-men, women, and children. But, according to the idiom of their language, they do not smoke the fragrant herb, but drink it (Tutun-itschmeck); nor is this a figurative expression, for, during the greatest heat and fatigue, the Tartar prefers the pipe to cool his thirst to every kind of drink, however agreeable; and even while suffering from hunger, the most savoury food is, in his estimation, only secondary to tobacco-smoke. The moral influence it has upon his character is not less remark-able : the curling vapour not only cools his anger, but causes him to forget his misfortunes; and to acquire his friendship it is only necessary to offer him a tchibouque; hence the loss of this beloved friend is to a Tartar a calamity almost insupportable. The first word he speaks to any of his family, on entering his home, is, ” Ot aket sen ” (give me fire); nor are the women much less passionately attached to the indulgence of smoking, particularly those advanced in years, the short pipe being ever in their mouth, in doors and out.

As a substitute for coffee, the Tartar of the steppe drinks a species of tea (tschai) found on the banks of the Don ; but, instead of using sugar and milk, seasons it with butter, pepper, and salt : it is considered very wholesome, and holds a prominent place among their materia medica.

. . . Before leaving Eupatoria, I visited the famous saline lake, with its mud-baths, called the “Boues de Sak.,” distant about seventeen wersts. These baths enjoy a very high reputation, attracting numbers of invalids from every part of the Russian empire, and the cures they are said to perform are nearly incredible : but as there are no people in Europe that exaggerate every thing connected with their country more than the Russians, I should not like to recommend them on such testimony. However efficacious they may be in removing rheumatism and cutaneous diseases, they are admirably calculated for giving. in return, the intermittent fever, which really was the case with one of the patients I met here, a German officer in the Russian service, who had come several hundred wersts: he recovered, it is true, the use of his limbs, but carried away with him a fever very likely to destroy a frame already shattered.

Of every other species of bath, they are certainly the most novel. Fancy a stagnant lake, of some extent, the greatest part composed of mud, where you see a multitude of heads (the whole of the bathers are buried to the chin), smoking. eating, drinking, laughing, singing. and moaning; altogether forming a scene the most comic imaginable. They remain in their muddy prison for about an hour, when another scene takes place, which baffles description. We then see the lake give forth its temporary inhabitants, composed of persons of all ages, some running, some hobbling on crutches, on their way to wash themselves in a clearer part of the lake, each carrying on a long pole his wearing apparel. But it is their darkened bodies, covered with mud, and cadaverous countenances, that realize every idea you might form of the resurrection of the dead.

The Tartars, whose occupation is principally pastoral, are exceedingly poor in this part of the Crimea steppe; and, when we regard their houses, it is impossible not to think that they have studied the art of architecture under badgers and rabbits; for, like them, their dwellings are burrowed into the earth. In this, however, a singular instinct of self-preservation is visible, derived, probably, from observation and experience; for, while they are seldom or never attacked by intermittent fevers, the colonists who live above the earth, in fine houses, are frequently its victims ; the miasma being supposed, like every other, only active a few feet from the surface of the earth.

While wandering in the vicinity of the Putrid Sea and the Sea of Azov, the most insalubrious part of the Crimea, I had an opportunity of ascertaining that this opinion was correct, as I invariably observed, before the rising and setting of the sun, a heavy mist hanging over the soil; whereas, it was only necessary to ascend a tumulus about seven feet in height, or descend into one of the Tartar huts, to be completely beyond its influence. This poisonous exhalation is most pernicious during autumn, when it becomes so offensive to the senses, and unpleasant to the feelings, that none can mistake it; for the damp cold penetrates the whole frame. However, by using the necessary remedies, and acting with prudence in avoiding the morning and evening mists (the only time when danger is to be apprehended), the disease may soon be subdued: not so with dysentery, a very common disease in Krim-Tartary, and too frequently fatal.

In truth, every traveller visiting these countries should, at least, be slightly acquainted with medicine, and provided with a small supply of common drugs, in the event of his falling a victim to some one or other of these diseases.

That part of the Crimea steppe in the neighbourhood of Eupatoria and the baths, is the most barren of any I had hitherto seen ; and, as no rain had fallen since April, and it was now August, there was not the slightest appearance of verdure, the alkaline salsola being almost the only plant that survived the long drought.

A Russian family we met here, just arrived from Ak-Metchet, informed us, that during their journey they observed the steppe on fire. It appears that this evil is one of frequent occurrence; a spark from a pipe being sufficient to set the whole country in a blaze; and as there is neither river, ditch, nor mountain, higher than a tumulus, to check the progress of the flame, it rushes along the ground, consuming the grass and herbage with astonishing rapidity. Sad indeed is the consequence when it reaches the agricultural fields of the colonist; then the produce of a whole year is destroyed in a few hours.

Here I also had an opportunity of witnessing the truth of some of the surprising accounts the natives relate of the locusts, which so often ravage these countries: the whole face of nature seemed covered with them, at one time swarming on the earth, and in the houses; then rising to an immense height, absolutely obscuring the light of the sun. (I escaped, however, more fortunately than poor Pallas, who was once caught in a swarm, and half smothered). When first rising from the earth, or turning upon the wing, I cannot compare their noise to any thing more appropriate than the roaring of the sea when agitated by a storm.

The present swarm were of the Gryllus migratorius species, or, as the Tartars call them, Tschigerka, distinguished for the red colour, of their legs and wings; consequently, whenever the rays of the sun shot obliquely over them, they appeared like a vast fiery cloud. They did not, however, finally settle on the steppe; for, on clearing the bay of Eupatoria, we observed them, after two or three attempts to alight, not liking, I suppose, the prospect of starvation on the parched deserts of the Crimea, continue their flight towards Odessa: and so did I; but it is scarcely necessary to say that the wings of the locust are a swifter conveyance than steam.

We had a short but pleasant passage, and, on our arrival, found a fearful battle raging between the inhabitants and the ruthless enemies of vegetation. Every noisy weapon, from a pistol to a mortar, from a kettle-drum to a tin casserole, were rattling like thunder in the hands of the horrified citizens, for the purpose of defending their little domains, while the locusts fought quite as bravely to obtain possession of the luxuriant meal promised by the gardens and neat little shrubberies.

A more comic scene it would be difficult to imagine ; and a stranger, unacquainted with their intentions, would suppose the whole population crazy. The uproar, however, had the desired effect ; for the insect multitude, terrified at the clamour, bent their course towards some other territory less vigorously defended.

In the midst of all this noise and confusion, I entered the house of M-, whose garden is celebrated for being the prettiest in Odessa, when I found him and his whole family labouring hard to scare away the dreaded intruders. My host, a sedate-looking man, somewhat corpulent, streaming with perspiration, was hammering with all his might upon an old tin kettle and greeted my arrival with the salutation, “Oh, those locusts ! those locusts!” at the same time rattling his clanging instrument ten times louder than before: every other consideration being absorbed in the prospect of his gay flowerbeds becoming the prey of the hungry swarm that hovered around.

UPON ENTERING CIRCASSIA PROPER

. . . Presently, several long boats, borne on the shoulders of the men to the beach, were launched, and we were boarded by dozens of stout fellows, singing in chorus their ” ka, ri, ra,” who commenced unloading the cargo; and, in an incredibly short time, the whole, including our vessel, was ashore: the latter, snugly concealed from view, in a small river, shaded by majestic trees.

This precaution was used in consequence of the destruction of several of their little barks, some days previous, by the Russians, who paid them an unwelcome visit; but, so far as we could understand from the natives, the enemy had suffered considerably in return, which obliged them to make a precipitate retreat to their ships.

The boats of the Circassians were flat-bottomed, lightly built, and narrow, each rowed by from eighteen to twenty-four men; and they must have been most expert at this exercise, for their boats were propelled with great velocity. Near the helm was a species of deck, on which three or four men were seated; and the prow of each was adorned with a figure, rudely carved, representing, it might be, the head of a deer, a goat, or a ram : most probably the latter. For, did not the ancient Greeks carry such a figure at the prow of their vessels ? Sometimes these boats are built large enough to contain from fifty to eighty men, when they are propelled, in addition to rowing, by an angular sail; and were formerly, owing to their quick sailing, much feared by the mariner, who, incautiously, or through stress of weather, approached the Circassian shore, the Caucasian tribes being, at one time, most formidable pirates.

The bay of Pchad is protected by two capes, offers good anchorage, and might be easily defended against any attack by sea. Owing to the heavy sea, and a ridge of rocks, which descends from Cape Tsuoughu, and extends a considerable distance into the sea, at the entrance of the harbour, it is considered imprudent to enter without a pilot; vessels, therefore, usually wait till the boats, with the natives, come alongside, which was the plan pursued by our captain: still, I understand there is no danger to be apprehended in fine weather.

The neighbouring country is extremely beautiful and fertile; and the climate – tempered by the bracing winds from the hills – salubrious, while the valley is just open enough to admit of a free circulation of air, without being weakened in its strength as a defile . . .

. . . I was now about commencing a tour under disadvantages such as I had never before experienced, having always made it a rule to acquaint myself with the history, customs, manners, and, above all, the language, of whatever country I might be about to visit: but here was a country and a people of whom the civilized world know little; and a language, according to the opinion of linguists, without the slightest affinity to any other on the face of the earth a language, not only without literature, but any rule or compass to guide the student, rendering it nearly impossible to convey any correct idea of its sounds by European characters. Not, however, that this is the only difficulty, for every one of its tribes speak a different dialect of the Circassian; and, although I had made myself master of several phrases, through the assistance of my Circassian friends at Constantinople, yet I found them nearly useless, when attempting to convey my wishes and desires to the people by whom I was now surrounded.

An anecdote is related of one of the Sultans of Turkey, famous for his love of letters, who sent a learned Turk to the Caucasus to learn the language of the inhabitants, and reduce it to established rules. After some time he returned to his master hopeless of success in his enterprise, carrying with him a bag of pebbles, which he shook, saying, that he could give no better imitation of the sounds of the language spoken by that people.

Generally speaking, I have found, that by conforming as far as I could with propriety to the manners of the inhabitants of the country through which I happened to be travelling, I, in every respect, facilitated my tour; and, by adopting their costume, not only flattered their vanity, but found it convenient and agreeable. This will be evident when we remember, that the natives of every clime are taught by experience the dress best calculated to protect them against its influence ; and, certainly, the Circassian costume, besides being elegant, is, in every respect, well suited to the country: the lambswool turban preserved my head from the vertical sun; and by enveloping myself in the ample folds of the chlamyde, and covering my head with the capuchin on the approach of evening, I was protected from the nightly dews so pregnant with ills to the frame of man ; for the dysentery, ophthalmia, and intermittent fever, all have their origin in obstructed perspiration and sudden chills. This remark is more particularly applicable to eastern countries, where, if travellers would but exercise a little common prudence, these and similar diseases so generally fatal to foreigners, might in great part be avoided, or at least rendered more harmless in their consequences.

Thus, perfectly equipped as a Circassian warrior, from the rifle slung across my shoulder to the poniard that hung from my girdle, and mounted upon a splendid horse which cost me the trifling sum of about four pounds (which in England would be worth a hundred), I commenced my journey, accompanied by the captain, to the house of Mahmood Indar Oglou, the chief of the district, some few miles distant. As may be supposed, we were objects of great curiosity to the natives ; consequently, our train soon swelled into hundreds; and by the time we reached the residence of the prince, we could not. have been surrounded by less than a thousand armed men, the greater number on horseback, rending the air with their warlike songs.

To a native of well-governed Europe the aspect of such a multitude of fierce-looking armed men, uncontrolled by police, soldiers, or any other system of civilized nations, was indeed a novel spectacle, and a stranger might reasonably entertain fears for his personal safety, imagining he had fallen into the hands of banditti.

CIRCASSIAN LIFE AND CUSTOMS

. . . The usual dress of a Circassian warrior of all classes is a tunic resembling a military Polonaise, without a collar, closely fitted to the body, and descending to the knee, secured around the middle by a leather girdle, ornamented, according to the wealth or fancy of the wearer, with gold or silver, in which are stuck a pair of pistols and a poniard : the latter is a most formidable weapon in close combat; during an attack they hold it in the left hand, and from its breadth and length, reaching to the elbow, it serves every purpose of a shield.

In addition to this, the Circassian is armed with a light gun, slung across the shoulder, and a sabre suspended by a silk cord in the Turkish fashion; attached to the belt is a powderflask, and a small metal box containing flints, steel, gun-screws, oil, and, not infrequently, a small hatchet. Hence, a Circassian, whether on foot, or on horseback, is at all times completely armed. Sometimes he carries a javelin, which he uses with singular dexterity and effect, hurling it to a considerable distance with an aim that never errs. The latter weapon is also used as a rest for the rifle, having a groove at the top expressly for that purpose. Bows and arrows are now very rarely used, except in cases where it is necessary to arm the whole population.

On either side of the breast of the coat are the patron pockets, made of morocco leather, usually containing twenty-four rounds of ball cartridge : these not only add to the military appearance of the soldier, but in some measure protect the breast, and are extremely convenient: a round fur cap, with a crown the same colour as the ammunition pocket, is the covering for the head; and cloth trousers, in the eastern fashion, complete the costume. Princes and nobles are alone entitled to the privilege of wearing red; and the Circassian, like the natives of most other eastern countries, shave the head, and are never seen barefoot. When marching, or on a journey, they always add a cloak made from camel or goat’s-hair, with a hood which completely envelopes the whole person – this is called a tchaouka – and no Mackintosh was ever more impenetrable to the rain; rolled up in its thick folds, it forms the only bed during their encampments, and serves, besides, to protect them against the scorching rays of the sun.

. . . Here we met a band of Circassians, who informed us that the chief of the Chipakoua tribe, to whom we were journeying, was absent, with his sons, at a general meeting of the confederate princes ; but that his cousin, who resided some few leagues further, would be most happy to receive us.

We now took a bridle path through a dense forest, following the ascent of a rapid rivulet, which conducted us over a hill, to another valley, called Dtchianogloti, watered by an insignificant stream. This valley was much more diversified and romantic than that through which we had passed, occasionally forming into a tiny plain, and then into a contracted gorge. It was, also, for the most part, diligently cultivated, and, I was told by the captain, thickly inhabited; not, however, that there was a single human habitation visible, the Circassians having the custom of concealing their dwellings by dense foliage, in order to elude the observation of the enemy.

After travelling through this valley some short distance, we passed into a third, called, as near as I can write it, Neapkheupkhi. Indeed, the whole country seemed to be broken into a succession of mountains, glens, gorges, and valleys. This led us to the residence of a Pchi-Khan, or chief of the second class, who received us most hospitably, and conducted us, with much courtesy, into his little dwelling. Here my host of companions left me, apparently much pleased, for their loud shouts of vo-ri, ra, ka, rebounded from hill to hill, from rock to rock. Thus, I had every reason to feel grateful for my reception, and satisfied with the friendly disposition evinced by the inhabitants towards me.

We were ushered into the apartment reserved for the reception of strangers, where the squire of my host divested me of all my arms, except the poniard, and hung them up on the walls of the rooms already adorned with a vast number, consisting of guns, pistols, sabres, poniards, bows and arrows, and one or two coats of mail, all kept in the highest order, and several richly ornamented with gold, silver, and precious stones.

The room differed little in its appointments from those of the Turks. The floor was covered with a brilliant-coloured carpet ; a divan of red leather, stuffed with hair, surrounded the chamber; and several small tablets, inscribed with verses of the Koran, in the Arabic language, were affixed to the walls. From this circumstance, I inferred that my host professed the Mahometan religion, which induced me to present him my firman, when, like a true believer, he kissed it most reverently, evidently regarding me with high respect, as the possessor of a document so sacred as to have affixed to it the seal of the spiritual chief of all the Osmanlis. However, his acquaintance with the Turkish language was merely confined to a few phrases, and his knowledge of Islamism vague and imperfect.

Our refreshment was served in the Turkish style, consisting of a variety of dishes, separately brought in, upon small round tables, about half a foot high. There could not have been less than from twelve to fifteen. Many would have been much better, had they been less seasoned. They were principally made from poultry, mutton, milk, honey, and fruits, with pastry. But all my entreaties were unavailing to induce our host to share the repast with us; who, according to the custom of this people, remained in the room the whole of the time, in the most courteous manner, anticipating every wish.

During the repast, we were waited upon, in addition to our host, by several female slaves. The drink was a species of mead, and the boza of the Tartars, made from millet, in taste not unlike small beer. The bread was a composition of wheat and maize, of excellent flavour; and, in the pilaff, which was not to be despised, buck-wheat formed a very good substitute for rice. Of course, we had a pewter tray for a tablecloth, wooden bowls for glasses, poniards for carving knives, fingers for forks, and the palms of our hands for spoons: but all these inconveniences, common to the East, were to me but as a feather in the balance, compared with being obliged to sit for an hour on a carpet, cross-legged; and, I assure you, I felt not a little pleasure, when the ceremony was over, to take a ramble through the grounds.

The clustered dwellings of my host, which might be said to resemble a little hamlet, were pleasantly situated, on a rising eminence, sloping down to the banks of a rivulet; and, being surrounded by grounds, divided, with no little judgment, into gardens, orchards, paddocks, meadows, and corn-fields, animated, here and there, with flocks of sheep and herds of cattle, altogether formed a very pretty picture. I could not but admire the judicious arrangement of the granary, supported on short stone pillars, each having attached, a few feet from the ground, a broad circular stone, hollowed in the centre, by means of which it effectually preserves the grain, not only from dampness, but from the attack of any vermin whatsoever.

In this pastoral country, like that of the patriarchs of old, the riches of the Cireassians consist in the number of their flocks and herds, to which we may add their wives and children. Those of my host, Ghatkhe Atiokhai, were numerous, and remarkably fine, particularly the horses, the greatest attention being paid by every Circassian to their breed, which are highly esteemed in the neighbouring countries, Russia and Turkey; and I remarked, that the character with which the cattle were branded bore some resemblance to the Grecian alphabet.

During our rambles through the grounds, we found the wives and children of my host, with their slaves, employed at agricultural pursuits, or tending their flocks and herds. Some were engaged in reaping, others in milking the cows; and one fine-looking princess, with the force of an Amazon, was repairing a wooden fence with a hatchet. Among the children, there was a remarkably good-looking, curly-headed boy, and a girl, about eight or nine years of age, who seemed, in an especial degree, to possess the affection of the father. I was just in the act of extolling the beauty of the children, when I was fortunately checked in time by the captain; for though, in Europe, you win the heart of a parent by praising his offspring; yet here, for the same compliment, you are accused of intending to extend over them the malign influence of the evil eye.

The young urchins were not inappropriately named the ” Look of a Lion,” and the ” Speed of a Deer,” for the one was playing with the halfwild horses as if they were kittens, while the fair young princess displayed the utmost agility in driving her refractory charge of goats, cows, and buffaloes, to water.

The women of Circassia are not, as in other parts of the East, completely confined to the harem, nor are they altogether obliged to conceal their features with the veil from the observation of the stranger, that article of dress being worn more as a shelter from the sun, when taking the air, and, indoors, as a graceful form of headdress. The wives of my host were habited in a species of white garment, made from camel or goat’s hair, which enveloped the whole form. To this was added a muslin veil; and you cannot think how picturesque was the effect when viewed from a distance. The sanctum sanctorum, in which were lodged the women and children, in addition to being enclosed within a wooden fence, was completely concealed from view by the thick foliage of groves of trees. Here are also the sheds for the cattle; the remainder of the cots being either set apart for the reception of strangers, or inhabited by the dependents of the chief. There might have, been altogether about six or seven ; the whole built of hurdles, plastered inside and out, and neatly thatched with reeds and Indian corn leaves. Each cot contained two rooms: the one, with a large fireplace in the centre, appropriated to cooking and domestic purposes, somewhat resembled that of an old English farm-house, having pot-hooks and hangers, while the other answered the double purpose of a sitting-room and dormitory. A chequered mat, of variegated colours, covered the floor; and a divan surrounded three sides of the room: the only additional furniture being a few small tables, about a foot in height, and something resembling a chest of drawers; unless, indeed, we include the saddles, bridles, housings, and weapons, that hung suspended against the walls.

Those occupied by the ladies of the chieftain and their slaves, were furnished in a similar manner; the only additional decoration,. I presume by way of ornament, were shelves loaded with glass, china, and bright culinary utensils, made of brass, copper, or glazed pottery, intended more for show than use. There was also a grand display, hanging upon lines across the room, of the various specimens of female industry, such as embroidered napkins, handkerchiefs, veils, and costly dresses, glittering with gold and silver. In one corner was a heap of mattresses, and in another, pillows and coverlets covered with a gay muslin quilt of various colours, but most studiously arranged, so as to shew the ends of each, which were decked with satin, sprigged with gold and silver; and it is but justice to the fair dames to say, that every thing was kept remarkably clean and neat.

Of every part of the dwelling of this primitive people, the little verandah, in fine weather, is the greatest favourite; this is generally furnished with a mat and a bench for a divan. Here the visitor is regaled ; here the improvisatore chants the warlike songs of his nation; the story-teller relates the traditionary tale. Its cool shade offers an agreeable retreat from the burning sun, for taking the noon-day siesta, or for indulging in the delights of the darling tchibouque.

It was beneath the shade of that of my hospitable host, towards the close of the evening, while sipping our coffee and smoking our tehibouques, in company with him and his wives, the fair princesses, Nazeek and Djanteen, who whiffed theirs with as much gusto as a German student, that a young warrior arrived, at the head of a train of young men about his own age, all well armed and mounted upon splendid horses. The young prince, who was remarkable for the symmetry of his athletic form and the frankness and sincerity expressed in his countenance, was introduced to me as the cousin of my host, the son of one of the Khapsoukhe chiefs called Beitzroukou. His visit was for the double purpose of arranging commercial relations with the captain for a supply of powder and salt, and inviting me to the residence of his father, some twenty leagues distant across the mountains. Accordingly, the next morning we commenced our route long before Aurora made her appearance; and, even thus early, the family of my host had breakfast prepared, similar to the repast I have already described.

A stranger in Circassia, who may be introduced to the ladies of his host, is expected, through courtesy, to present them with some trifling articles for their wardrobe. Aware of this custom, I provided myself, before leaving Trebizond with a variety of trinkets, more showy than valuable, together with a plentiful supply of coloured and white muslin shawls, pins, needles, German silver fire-boxes, &c. Several of which I presented, when taking my departure, to my host and his family. I need hardly say that they were objects of universal admiration, and tended to elevate me in no slight degree in the estimation of the people. Here I also bade adieu for the present to my captain, whose friendly attentions I shall ever remember, and committed myself to the care of the young prince, and his gallant troop.

. . . Notwithstanding our ride was one of the most neck-breaking description, yet these daring mountaineers galloped over it with as much nonchalance, as we should through a stubble-field in England; and, however elevated, yet every spot capable of producing vegetation was covered with the most splendid forest trees., and even, in some fertile patches, we found an Alpine cot, with its half-wild inhabitant tending his goats. It was not till after ascending several thousand feet, that the peculiar character of the Caucasian mountains was developed ; for, however precipitous or rocky the ascent may be, each invariably terminated in a fertile plateau, even at a height of between four and five thousand feet above the level of the sea. This is, perhaps, independent of their well-known bravery and patriotism, the principal cause that every attempt to subdue these people has been hitherto found impracticable ; for, when driven from the plains, they ever found a secure retreat on the mountain tops till they recruited their forces, and then descended to annihilate their enemies.

On the summit of one of these plateaux, where we remained. during the noon-day heat, I found a blooming village, surrounded with orchards and agricultural fields, all extremely fertile, and in a high state of cultivation. I soon ascertained that the inhabitants were a colony of Tartars, who having escaped from Russian oppression at the conquest of the Crimea, had here found a secure asylum,. When I told them, in their native language, that I had recently travelled through Krim-Tartary, these simpleminded people lavished upon me a thousand kind attentions; indeed we had every reason to feel grateful for their hospitality.

Like the Circassians, the Tartars conceal their little dwellings behind embankments or clusters of trees; and, were it not for the numerous herds of cattle grazing in the fields, and the men and women employed at the various works of husbandry, it would be impossible for the traveller to discover that he was in the neighbourhood of a human habitation. I found these Alpine cots to be of the same peculiar form as those I had before observed while wandering in the remote mountain districts of the Crimea. The roof is always flat; being strongly built, and covered with a layer of gravel, they become perfectly impenetrable to, the rain.

During the summer months, the Tartars are accustomed to. furnish the tops of their houses with a divan and carpet, when they are used instead of the interior for taking their meals and receiving the visits of their friends; nor are they less valuable in the autumn, when they serve as a granary, on which to dry their grain and fruits. In the centre of each cot is a large chimney, appropriated to the treble purpose of communicating their wishes to their neighbours, a channel for the smoke to escape, and a window to light the apartment. The vestibule in front is frequently the kitchen; the rooms for the harem being on one side, and the stables for the cattle on the other.

However singular these cots may appear when described, they are nevertheless exceedingly well adapted to the climate, being warm in winter, and cool in summer.

During our ride, we shot several kinds of game, such as wild turkeys, pheasants, hares, and deer, to which I may add jackals, wild cats, and an immense boar. And although the Circassians are unrivalled as marksmen at a stationary object, yet I was infinitely more successful when firing at a bird on the wing, or an animal at full speed : this arises from the bad custom I before alluded to, of using the javelin as a rest for the rifle. The forests appeared to abound with animals of every description. In addition to those I have mentioned, there are wolves, bears, foxes. the lynx, &c.; and., if I have been rightly informed, the inhabitants of the Caucasus are sometimes favoured with a visit from the tiger.

On descending the mountains, sufficient light remained for us to obtain an indistinct glance of the little congregated cottages of the highland prince to whom we were repairing; which, from the palisadoes in front, and the semicircular rivulet that formed a natural moat as it rushed past, appeared fortified. This, however, was not the case; for the numerous flocks and herds that covered the hills, told more of rural life than feudal vassalage.

Several horses were standing under the verandah, ready saddled; when, on our leader firing his musket, we were presently joined by the old chief and a few of his clansmen, who welcomed me in the most friendly manner to Attaghei, (Circassia, in the language of the natives.) The appearance of the prince was in every respect calculated to excite the attention of a stranger. In his person he was tall and erect, with a beard descending half way to his girdle. His features still handsome, but roughened by long exposure to the weather, wore a mingled expression of good nature, ferocity, and cunning, the effect of a long life of warfare and peril.

Although he had attained the age of seventy, yet he managed his steed with as much ease and grace as any one of the athletic youths that surrounded me. Indeed, he is said still to excel in horsemanship, and all the military exercises of his country; he had only returned, a few days previous to my arrival, from the camp near Soudjouk-Kali, where he performed prodigies of valour in defending the passes against the advance of the Russian army, and was now preparing his clansmen for a second campaign.

The residence of my host was quite as primitive in its construction as that I before described, the only difference being, that there were a few more detached cottages, and two or three, by way of distinction, were plastered outside with a species of mineral clay, found in the environs, which becomes, from exposure to the weather, exceedingly firm, and has not a bad effect. As to comforts and conveniences, none were visible either in the furniture or the arrangements: the windows, open by day, were simply secured at night from the cold damp by an ill-fitting shutter; and, during the severest weather, a piece of parchment is the substitute for glass.

This total absence of domestic comforts was singularly contrasted with the splendid armour of the men, their gemmed weapons, noble horses, and rich housings; together with the magnificent Oriental costume of the women, who, in their dresses of gold brocade and silvered muslin, resembled so many peacocks proudly strutting about a farm-yard. Still, the traveller arriving at the house of a Circassian chief has no reason to complain. The room appropriated to strangers is always furnished with a divan, pillows, and coverlets: the cheer is, by no means, to be despised; and I do not think that any people ever tendered the cup of refreshment to the weary traveller with more genuine hospitality.

On entering the strangers’ apartment, to which the, prince had the courtesy to conduct me himself, his squire, according to the general custom of this people, divested me of the whole of my weapons, and hung them up on the walls of the room with those of his master, except the poniard, which a Circassian never parts with, being considered a part of his costume. How like the warriors of ancient Greece!

And now with friendly force his band he grasped,

Then led him in within his palace halls;

His coat of mail, and glittering helm unclasped,

And hung the splendid armour on the walls;

For there, Ulysses’ arms, neglected, dim,

Are left, nor more the conqueror’s crown will win.

Having partaken of an excellent supper, attended with the same ceremony as before described, two female slaves brought in warm water, when my feet were most carefully washed, this being an essential observance in the forms of Circassian politeness.

Sleeping, I soon found, in Circassia, to be by no means a necessary consequence of going to bed; and, assuredly, if Young had been a native of the East, the world would never have been favoured with his “Night Thoughts;” for, amidst such a din and clatter as now greeted my ears, the author, instead of thinking, must be content to listen; and, should they ever be translated into the Circassian language, the natives will certainly deem the poet crazy. Indeed, nothing but being accustomed to the nocturnal choristers will permit even the most weary to slumber.

Besides the chirping of innumerable insects, the croaking of myriads of frogs, whose united din rung far and wide through the forest, there was another species of this noisy reptile that I never met with, except in the mountains of the Caucasus, and whose note, deep-toned, sonorous, and even musical, was so pitched in alto, as ever to render them the principal performers in the concert.

All this was bad enough: still it might have been borne, had it not been that I was favoured with a visit from the jackal, whose cry was so melancholy, shrill, and fearfully wild, that, when numbers howl in concert, which was, unfortunately for my slumbers, the case, it is sufficient to shake the nerves, even of the most stouthearted, who hears them for the first time.

It is singular that the war-cry of the Circassians is an exact imitation of the howl of this animal; and, when screamed at the same moment by thousands, is the most fearful, unnatural, and intimidating yell, ever uttered by a people in presence of an enemy. The Russian officers assured me, that so paralysing is its effect upon troops who hear it for the first time, that they are rendered incapable of defending themselves.

The following morning, owing to my character for generosity in presenting the women with presents, and my profession of hakkim, the young prince introduced me to his mother and sisters; for these people, as I before remarked, unlike other Orientals, do not rigidly seclude their women in the harem; probably they have followed, in this respect, the example of their neighbours, the Tehernemorsky Cossacks: however, from whatever cause it has resulted, I have frequently seen the women at the public assemblies of the men, particularly those who were unmarried. Still, a married man does not appear in public with his wife; neither does he see her during the day, when it can be avoided. This custom does not originate in any feeling of disrespect for the fair sex, but in ancient usage, and a desire to prolong the reign of love. A similar law was established by Lyeurgus among the Lacedemonians.

But, to return to my visit: having been received most courteously by the princess and her daughters, I made them, in compliance with universal custom, a few trifling presents, which they acknowledged, by giving me an embroidered belt to hold my pistols, and a pair of red Morocco patron pockets,-the work of their own fair hands.

The mother of my young companion, probably between forty and fifty years of age, was sumptuously attired in a blue silk robe, open in the front, confined with silver clasps, and a girdle ornamented with silver; her trousers were very beautiful Turkish muslin, of variegated colours, and red slippers; on her head she wore a light shawl, partly arranged as a turban, and partly falling, in graceful folds, over her neck and shoulders, completely concealing her hair; over this was thrown a large, thin muslin veil, that nearly enveloped her figure; her dress being completed by an abundant display of gold trinkets, evidently extremely ancient, and, from the workmanship, I should think, Venetian. Her person still retained traces of great beauty.

The attire of her daughters was even more splendid; but, in lieu of the turban, each wore a tiara of red Morocco leather, ornamented with a profusion of small Turkish and Persian gold coins. In other respects their dress was similar, except that the hair of the young dames, instead of falling on the neck in curls, like that of the married women, was arranged in a thick plait, confined at the end by a silver cord, which descended below the waist: their features were as beautifully regular and expressive as those of their mother; yet, it must be confessed that their sallow complexions by no means improved their personal appearance. They were, however, young, still encased in the tight leather corset worn by all Circassian girls, of whatever age, which was, no doubt, the principal cause of their unhealthy appearance.

On a signal being made, the young prince, agreeably to custom, left the room, when one of his wives entered, a princess of the Demirghoi tribe, one of the handsomest women I think I ever beheld. She might be about eighteen: with the most regular features of the Grecian cast; eyes, large and dark; complexion, a clear brown; hands and feet delicately small: and her whole figure admirably moulded. She was dressed in a similar style to that of the elder princess, except that it was more tasteful, and studied with no small degree of coquetry: her fine dark hair hung in tresses on her shoulders.

Indeed, the finest women I saw in Circassia, were the young and married; for, being divested of the leather confinement, their forms had expanded into all the luxuriance of womanhood. At first sight, we might be inclined to think there was an undue share of embonpoint in the figure; but this is caused more from the custom of wearing wide Oriental trousers, than any defect of nature. In short, beauty of feature, and symmetery of form, for which this people are celebrated, is no chimera (and some of the finest statues of the ancients do not display, in their proportions, greater perfection); but, it is the singular degree of animation in the eye, so generally observable, that most arrests attention: when this is exhibited in a high degree in the men, it gives an expression of great ferocity to the countenance; and, when we see a warrior, mounted on his fiery steed, armed and equipped for battle, brandishing his scimitar in the air, bending, turning, and stopping at full gallop, with unequalled agility and grace of action, he realizes every idea of Homer’s Hector.

The complexion of both sexes is far more ruddy and fresh than might be expected in such, a latitude. In that of the women, delicately so, who, aware, like their sex in Europe, of the advantage, of a pretty person, use every artificial means-, by cosmetics, &c., to improve their beauty. Still, the traveller who may read my account, and expects to find the whole population such as I have described, will be woefully disappointed, should he find himself, on arriving in Circassia, surrounded by a tribe of Nogay Tartars, Calmucks, Turcomans, or even the Lesghi. The latter, however, a :fine warlike race, are nearly equal, in personal appearance, to the Circassians, but more ferocious in character, and less refined in manners. The Caucasian valleys having been, in all ages, the asylum of those who fled from oppression in the neighbouring countries, we everywhere find tribes differing from each other in appearance, customs, and manners. Still, as the Circassian men never intermarry with any other race than their own, they preserve their lineage uncontaminated, a father paying more attention to the beauty of feature and form in a wife for his son, than any other consideration; and, if I have been rightly informed, a prince, or usden, never sells his daughter, except to one of his own nation and rank.

My first impression at Pitzounda, on seeing a number of Caucasians together, was, that they were decidedly of Grecian origin. This, however, I found, did not correspond with the general physical character of the people, as I advanced into the interior of the country, there being a greater proportion with the small aquiline nose, and fine arched eyebrow, than any other. This remark may be more particularly applied to that powerful tribe, called the Nottakhaitzii, celebrated as being the bravest, handsomest, and purest race among the Circassians; and who still preserve the tradition that their ancestors came from beyond the seas. Were it not that we are ascending into the regions of fable, we might almost suppose them to be descended from a remnant of the Trojans.

I found the princess and her daughters employed at embroidery. This refined accomplishment does not, however, occupy a large portion of the time of the women of the Caucasus; and those of my host, like the princesses of old, occasionally employed themselves in spinning wool and flax: their fair hands not only made the clothes for their families, down to the very shoes. but plaited camels’ and goats’ hair into mantles, made cushions for the saddle, housings for the horse, and sheaths for swords and poniards. Nor were they less expert in the art of cookery or the management of the dairy; and sometimes even displayed their agricultural skill in the fields, the whole wardrobe of finery being reserved for visits of ceremony.

My host was equally industrious; for, besides building, with his own princely hands, the little cottages he occupied, he was his own carpenter, tanner, and weaver, mounted his pistols and guns, manufactured his inimitable bows and arrows; and, like old King Priam, in conjunction with his princely boys, tilled the land, and tended his flocks and herds in the mountains; and, when the wintry snow rendered his occupations in the open air no longer agreeable, he made mats of great beauty, which find a ready sale in Turkey and Persia. Nor was this his only employment: he cast bullets, made gunpowder; and, if these were not sufficient to fill up his time, he smoked his tehibouque.

There is no regular body of artificers and mechanics in Circassia, except the cutlers, armourers, and goldsmiths, who fabricate and mount the weapons with gold, silver, and precious stones; in which they exhibit much elegance and taste. I often admired the beauty of the designs traced on their swords and poniards; while the excellence of the temper they give them cannot be surpassed: nor yet their ingenious method of inlaying their guns and little tables with mother-of-pearl. Their brass chain-armour, and some of their weapons, are obtained from Persia and Turkey.

The art of preparing gunpowder, which, it appears, has been known in the Caucasus from time immemorial, is, with them, extremely simple: they merely boil the efflorescence of nitrate of potass in a strong lye of birch and poplar ashes, when it is left to crystallize, then pulverised with two parts of sulphur, and the same quantity of charcoal. After the mixture has been wetted, it is put into a caldron, and placed over a slow fire, till it begins to granulate.

IN TIME OF WAR

. . . they are the best guerilla soldiers in the world, and, above all, that they have hitherto resisted every attempt to betray their country for gold, or jewelled poniards.

During a campaign, difference of rank seems to cause no distinction between them the chief fares no better than his clansman; a bag of millet, here called adjikha, and a leathern bottle full of skhou, a species of sour milk, forming the stock of provisions ; and the mantle (tehaouko), both tent and bed. A Circassian never complains that he cannot march for want of shoes, nor subsist for want of provisions; for, if the bag of adjikha and bottle of skhou fail, the rifle will procure him a dinner so long as a bird flies in the air, or a wild beast roams in the woods.

Inured to what we call hardships from their infancy, and practising abstinence in a high degree, which is here considered a virtue, they bear all the fatigues of war, not, only without repining, but cheerfulness. To give you an idea of their desperate valour, the Russian officers assured me, that a Circassian warrior never surrenders, combating while a spark of life remains, even with a host of enemies, it being only when powerless from wounds that he can be taken to grace the triumph of the conqueror; and, if my space would allow, I could relate anecdotes of the heroism and valour of this people, perhaps unparalleled in the history of any other. Even during my short stay in the camp, I witnessed exploits that would do no discredit to the pages of romance.

To all this bravery we may add, that they possess quite as much cunning, it being absolutely impossible to overreach them: an enemy can never calculate upon their movements, for, appearing as if endowed with ubiquity, they are found now in one place, and then in another, and even creep, like a snake, in the grass, and surprise the sentinel on duty at the gates of the fortress : in short, every tree, crag, and shrub, serves a Circassian as an ambuscade.

In cases of extreme danger, watch-fires, corresponding with each other, like telegraphs, are lighted upon the hills, which the Circassians no sooner behold, than each man seizes his arms, mounts his horse, always ready saddled at his door, and gallops to the chief of his clan.

Nothing short of actual representation can convey any adequate idea of the impetuosity of a Circassian charge ; to the very bravest European troops it must be absolutely terrific, being executed literally with the rapidity of lightning, accompanied with a frightful war-cry, resembling, as I before observed, the scream of a jackal : such also is the admirable training of horse and rider, that I daily witness feats of horsemanship, even by the meanest soldier, far superior in dramatic effect to any public equestrian exhibition I ever beheld in Europe, appearing almost impossible for the human body to execute. For instance, a Circassian warrior will spring front his saddle to the earth, plunge his dagger into the breast of the horse of his enemy, again vault into the saddle; then stand erect, strike his adversary, or hit a mark, almost at a hair’s breadth, with his light gun: and all this while his horse is proceeding at full gallop.

But the finest exhibition you can possibly imagine of this description of warfare, is a single combat between one of these fine fellows and a Tchernemorsky Cossack, the only cavalry soldier in the Russian army at all capable of maintaining his ground against such a formidable foe, who, nevertheless, in the end almost invariably falls a victim to the superior prowess and agility of the Cireassian. These combats are usually conducted with all the forms of a duel, and, to the honour of both armies, the strictest neutrality is observed.

I did not myself see any of these chivalrous duels; but a Russian officer, on whose veracity I could place the strictest reliance, and who had witnessed several, supplied me with the following particulars : –

“The combatants usually commence the attack at full gallop with the light musket; but so well trained are both, that the first fire rarely takes effect, as they either jump from the saddle. or throw themselves on one side in order to avoid it. Sometimes they reserve their charge, till like a snake darting upon its prey, each party watches a favourable moment, while his adversary is off his guard, to fire. At another time, when at full gallop, their swords meet with a tremendous crash, they then turn quickly round, and the death-struggle commences, in which one or other is almost certain to fall.”

If a horse is killed it matters not to a Circassian, owing to the admirable custom of having the whole of his weapons attached to his person; and his agility is such, that he generally avoids every attempt to cut him down unless overpowered by numbers. Even the dangerous position of being without his horse he does not fail to turn to advantage, as he frequently springs like a tiger upon the horse of his opponent, and hurls the rider to the dust.

These solitary combatants are gradually followed by their comrades until the whole body is engaged. Generally speaking, the Circassians never follow up an attack. -their mode of fighting being, after a furious onset, to vanish like lightning into the woods, when they carry with them their killed and wounded; and it is only while engaged in this pious office, to which they affix a religious character, that the Russians have a chance of obtaining any material advantage, except, indeed, when cannon-the horror of the mountaineers – can be brought to play against them. On the other hand, however, should the ranks of the Russian troops become disordered, they are literally hewed to pieces in a few minutes.

From the commencement of my introduction to the chiefs, 1 positively objected taking any part in the warfare, declaring upon every occasion I was a peaceable hakkim, and that my visit was purely one of curiosity. Besides, however much I might condemn the ambitious views of the Russian government, and denounce its selfish policy, I had abundant reason to esteem many of the people individually. Add to this, I was personally acquainted with several of the officers on duty in the neighbouring fortresses. How then could I lift my hand against them, or be in any way instrumental to their destruction ?

Nevertheless, during my short stay at the camp, curiosity induced me more than once to accompany the prince in his reconnoitring expeditions ; but a Circassian reconnoissance is somewhat too daring not to be attended with considerable danger, and in one we found ourselves with merely a few followers in the valley of Soudjouk, completely surrounded by an overwhelming force of Tehernemorsky Cossacks, who had posted themselves, like a regiment of frogs, in the long reeds and sedges on the banks of a river. Fortunately, the vigilance of the clansmen of our chief had not slept ; for, on perceiving our danger at a distance, they flew to our assistance, otherwise we should probably have fared badly; as it was, we had several of our men wounded, and lost three horses. For myself, I was indebted to the admirable custom of wearing the patron pockets on the breast of the coat, for my preservation, at least, from a bad wound, a pistol-shot having completely shattered one of its metal tubes filled with bullets, leaving no other bad effects than a slight contusion.

On our return to the camp, we remained a day or two at the house of another chieftain, Aitek Teherei, one of the princes of a small tribe called Demirghoi. I was received, as usual, into the guest-house, standing, like a little palace, in the midst of a number of small cottages appropriated to the use of the proprietor, his family, and slaves, together with extensive barns and stables for his cattle, corn, &c. These were built, according to their custom, of the most frail materials, that in case of a necessity arising to destroy them, the loss might be trifling; and, as the weather is delightfully genial in these valleys throughout the year, it is hardly necessary that their habitations should be more substantially built. The room I now entered, appropriated to the reception of guests, was much more neat and comfortable than those I have described while travelling in Upper Abasia: the floor was covered with a beautiful chequered matting; the little table ingeniously inlaid with mother-of-pearl; and the cushions and pillows were all that could be wished. In fact, the manner of living of the tribes inhabiting this part of the country very much resembled that of their neighbours, the Cossacks, except that we were obliged to use our poniards for knives, and fingers for forks.

In addition to the bak-siina, a drink not unlike the bouza of the Turks, we had souate (wine) of excellent flavour, resembling Champagne; and if better made, it might rank among the best wines in the world. There was also sooui, a species of mead, and a spirit distilled from corn, which they learned the art of making from the Cossacks; but as they are a most abstemious people, it is never made use of except as a medicine, or when guests are present.

Here I was made acquainted with their manner of procuring sugar, which is derived from the walnut tree, that flourishes here in extraordinary perfection. During spring, just as the sap is rising, the trunk is pierced, and a spigot left in it for some time, when this is withdrawn, a clear sweet liquor flows out, which is left to coagulate; and on some occasions they refine it. For diseases of the lungs, and general debility, they consider it a most valuable medicine. Clarified honey, bleached in the sun, till it becomes quite white, is another substitute for sugar.

Pilaw here, as well as in Turkey, forms the principal article of food; and is preferable to any other for a traveller in the East, not only as being the most palatable and nutritious, but the most easy to digest. Of this I can speak from experience; for I always selected it in preference to every other food made either with rice or buck-wheat. The latter grain is by no means a bad substitute for rice ; and I certainly attribute the uninterrupted good health I enjoyed, in countries so generally fatal to Europeans, entirely to my abstemiousness, and to conforming, as much as possible, to the mode of living practised by the natives, particularly while en route . . .

The coup d’oeil exhibited around the house of the prince, was extremely picturesque, and peculiarly characteristic of the warlike habits of this people. The greatest part of the population were, as usual, engaged in every species of military exercise; and when you see a troop of these daring fellows scouring the sides of the hills and valleys on their long-tailed steeds, their gaudy trappings, glittering with silver and glass beads, together with the jewelled ornaments of their weapons, reflected in the sun, you have a picture at once as novel as it is interesting. However much you may offend a Circassian by praising the beauty of his wife or child, for fear of shedding over them the malignity of the evil eye, still, singular as it may appear, you cannot too much praise or admire his horse; and I must say that they sometimes dress out their dumb favourite bizarre enough : besides the tinselled toys that we see hanging down from the red cloth trappings, there is a wreath of many-coloured glass beads and ribands around the neck, and not unfrequently a bunch of flowers attached to each side of the head.

The chief himself mingled among his clansmen with the most perfect familiarity, little or no distinction being observable in his dress and appearance, with the exception of his jewelled poniard ; and also that he exhibited, like most of the Circassian chiefs, a decided physical superiority; and from the circumstance that they speak a different dialect of the Circassian, they would appear to be a distinct race. Notwithstanding this familiarity, characteristic of all the chiefs, whenever they preside over any public business, however unimportant, they assume an air of great gravity; and their clansmen stand before them as if in the presence of the most despotic sovereign in Europe. This austerity of manner is however instantly relaxed when the assembly is dissolved, and the multitude render their princes or elders no higher courtesy than they would to the humblest of their brethren.

The most trivial amusements of this people, even dancing, partake of a warlike character; generally representing pantomimic fights: and not only are the mere children habited in military costume, but the fair dames frequently carry a dagger and a brace of pistols in the girdle.

Of the men now present, numbers were armed with Russian muskets, which had been principally taken during the summer’s campaign, together with those found in the Russian corvette, captured some months previous, during the terrific gale of July, the effects of which I experienced myself, while coasting off the shores of Mingrelia, in company with Count Worrenzow. It appears, the corvette, having become unmanageable, the captain was obliged to cast anchor near the little bay of Soutcha, in the possession of the Circassians; when, on perceiving it, one of these daring fellows actually swam out, regardless of the boisterous element, and cut the cable, when she imperceptibly drifted ashore: she was then immediately boarded, the whole of the crew made prisoners, and the vessel, after being completely pillaged, burnt. This exploit is referred to with great pleasure by the Circassians: the booty must have been considerable, for, in the hopes of obtaining a similar prize, numbers, on the look-out, have taken up their quarters, day and night, in the clefts of the rocks near the coast.

Having become by this time, through the unremitting kindness of my Konak, more intimately acquainted with the people, I mingled with them more in the character of a native than a stranger. It is inconceivable how far you may gain upon the friendship of a people, however uncivilized, and allay their suspicion, by adopting their costume and conforming to their habits and manners. This proved the means of developing to my observation many little traits in the national character, to which I should otherwise have been a stranger. I enjoyed the cup of hospitality, divested of etiquette; for the Circassians are, perhaps, the most ceremonious people existing in their deportment towards a visitor; and, with the exception of sleeping al fresco, with a mat for my bed and a saddle for my pillow, more frequently than was agreeable, I passed my time pleasantly enough.

The Circassians being a lively animated people, they are, as you may suppose, no strangers to music and dancing; albeit, their progress in these arts has been, it must be confessed, rather limited. The most common musical instruments I observed among them, were the two-stringed lyre and a sort of pipe: the latter is sometimes made of silver, or any other metal, and, not unfrequently, from the large canes that grow in the marshes near the Kouban. The form is not less curious than the mode of playing on it, and the sounds it produces. The length is about two feet, with only three finger-holes at the lower extremity; and the mouth-piece, projecting about an inch in length, being open at each side, the performer presses it against the roof of his mouth, when it gives forth sounds similar to those of a bagpipe. Sometimes I have seen them play a sort of march on two of these at the same time, which was by no means disagreeable to the ear.

I have also observed the harp in use, but it is not national, neither is the drum, nor the tambourine; the performers on these instruments being generally wandering Calmucks, or gipsies.

I was much pleased with the originality of the Cireassian melodies; and the music, when compared with that of the Tartars and Turks, is harmonious enough. Their ka-ri-ra, a boat song, chanted by the whole population, is admirable; also a sort of march, performed on the pipe: but their greatest favourites are the war songs., generally sung in chorus while marching, when the woods and mountains re-echo the martial strain, and the enthusiasm of the people is excited to a degree only found in an eastern clime. Their songs usually refer to some victory obtained over the Cossacks or the fana Moscov; or are expressive of an animated call to battle . . .

ANCIENT TOMBS

In my letters from Circassia, I do not pretend to give you detailed descriptions, but simply such things as I had an opportunity of becoming acquainted with, either from personal observation, or through the information of, now and then, a Pole, a Russian slave, or an Armenian; and, as my notes were taken in haste, and always by stealth, to avoid the imputation of being considered a spy, they are not written with that accuracy, as to names and places, that I could wish.

Notwithstanding I avoided, as much as possible, giving the people any cause to doubt my good intentions towards them and their cause, I did not altogether escape distrust; for, whenever a mouldering ruin, or a tumulus, excited my curiosity, their suspicion was instantly aroused, it being supposed I was in search of hidden treasures; for, in their opinion, what other motive could induce a man to be interested about a few old bricks and broken pillars ?

While wandering through the valleys, I frequently found tumuli, similar to those of Krim Tartary, except that here they are more varied in their form, and of larger dimensions; sometimes composed of earth, resembling beautiful green hills; sometimes girt by a stone wall, and sometimes nothing better than a vast heap of loose stones; and, to give you an idea of their great antiquity, I have generally found them crowned by a majestic oak, which, to judge from the parent stem, must have been at least a descendant of the third or fourth generation. The traditions of the natives give no other explanation, as to their origin and purport, than that they were the burial places of the people who occupied the country previous to themselves, and that it was only distinguished warriors who were entitled to such a sepulchre: however, most certain it is, they have no feature in common with those of the Circassians of the present day, whose mode of interment only differs from that of the Turks in the single circumstance that the grave of the warrior chief is generally covered either with a wooden roof, or a large stone slab, intended to shelter the wanderer alike from the tempest and the burning rays of the sun. The only indication we have of the sort of people that inhabited the Caucasus in days of old, is, now and then, an antique statue of common stone, rudely carved, representing a human figure, of either sex, with a large head, flat breast, short neck, broad face, high cheek bones, and flat nose, exactly like a Calmuck; and the head-dress is precisely similar to that worn by a Calmuck woman of the present day.

Being extremely desirous of opening a tumulus, I at length, after repeated solicitations, obtained the consent of my Konak; but, alas! not a single Circassian could be prevailed upon to assist in so dreadful an enterprise as to invade the rights of the demon that guarded the treasure, consequently, I was obliged to resign every hope of gratifying my curiosity. To this singular superstition, so prevalent, also, among the Turks and Tartars, we may principally attribute the circumstance that the tumuli of these countries have been left to the present day unmolested.

I had, however, the pleasure of descending into the interior of one, during my rambles on the coast, near Soudjouk Kale. To judge from its appearance, and the age of the trees that had sprung up on the excavated earth in the vicinity, it must have been opened some centuries ago, most probably by the Genoese. On examination, I discovered a few fragments of unglazed terra cotta vases, containing charcoal and earth, remarkable neither for beauty of design nor elegance of form. There were also strewed about several pieces of white sea-weed, of the same species as that I had seen in the tumuli of Krim-Tartary. Nevertheless, the interior of this differed not only from those of that country in the construction-in the vases being less beautiful, but in the circumstance that the entrance was placed due east; probably originating in a superstitious feeling of the people for the glorious luminary of day. Whether this arose from accident or intention, I cannot determine; it may, nevertheless, serve as a guide to future travellers in their research.

The interior consisted of a large arched vault, built of cut stone, united without cement; and, from the skill displayed in the construction, and the admirable turn of the arch, there was sufficient evidence to prove that it must have been the work of a people far advanced in the arts of civilized life. That they were a people wealthy and powerful, is equally apparent; for who can behold one of those mountains, raised to immortalise the memory of the illustrious dead, without being astonished at the prodigious labour and enormous expense that must have been incurred in erecting one ? And what monument could any people raise to the memory of their forefathers so simple and enduring? for while the vast and sumptuous edifice, the triumphal arch, even the gigantic pyramid, have crumbled, and continue crumbling, into dust, these alone have remained unchanged for ages, and will continue to the end of time; appearing as if left to mark the path of the first inhabitants of the earth, as they passed onward from the East to people the more distant parts of the globe. Do we not find similar erections in various parts of Europe (although of diminished size and magnificence), particularly in Hungary, Russia, Poland, Germany, and on to the snowy regions of Lapland?

It would appear as if the Caucasus had been occupied for successive ages by a pastoral people, few or no remains existing to prove that it was at any period inhabited by a great and powerful nation : for, with the exception of the tumuli and the ruins of a few churches and monasteries on the coast, erected by the ancient Christians, there is no vestige of antiquity, to guide the traveller as to the history of the country in past ages.

It is true the natives, while tilling the land, frequently discover gold and silver coins, belonging to the kings of the Bosphorus, and other Grecian colonists; still this affords no ground for believing that the country, at any time, belonged to them, for we find the inhabitants of the Caucasus, from the earliest epochs of history, defending the passes of their country against the arms of the most powerful nations with the same obstinancy as they now do against the inroads of the Russians. Here Alexander the Great was arrested in his progress; and here the march of Mithridates, with his numerous legions, was disputed, with fearful loss; and, at length, it was only by paving his path with gold, in the form of presents to the chiefs, that he was allowed to proceed. Besides, the natives take good care that we should know as little as possible of their country ; for should a coin fall into their hands, they either melt it down, or destroy the effigy: in the latter case, it serves as an ornament for the women and children. This is done with the intention of obliterating every trace of the original inhabitants of the country, whose descendants they fear might come and claim the land if they could trace its possession to their forefathers . . .

From the first moment I entered the valleys of the Caucasus, the aspect of the country and the population far surpassed my most sanguine expectations. Instead of finding it a mountain desert inhabited by hordes of savages, it proved to be, for the most part, a succession of fertile valleys and cultivated hills : the inhabitants every where overwhelmed me with their forms of etiquette, and the observances of Eastern politeness ; while at the same time, their good nature, frankness of manners, open sincerity, and unbounded hospitality, imperceptibly enlisted me in their favour, till, at length, I became as anxious for their future welfare, and final triumph, as if I had been personally interested in their fate: and how little, poor people, were they conscious, while accusing me of being a spy, and writing incantations, that I was penning remarks on their country, every line of which advocated their cause !

CLIMATE AND WILDLIFE

Although I cannot cite the little cots of the mountaineers as models of beauty or taste, nor their skill in agriculture as worthy of imitation, or the arrangements of their farm yards or houses as examples of domestic economy, it was impossible to look on the charming landscape around me without admiration, particularly when we remember the peculiar state of the country, and that nearly the whole of my excursions lay through that part of the Caucasus in the immediate vicinity of the most formidable line of Russian operations. There was hardly an uncultivated spot to be seen; immense herds of goats, sheep, horses, and oxen, as if in the midst of peace, were browsing in every direction among herbage which could not be exceeded in luxuriance. Yet, however lovely it might be, I did not see the country, during my second visit to Circassia, when its charms are most fully developed ; for, it being now the decline of the year, the fields were partially robbed of their beauty, the trees of their fruit, and the leaves of the rich verdure of summer.

In truth, these provinces are so richly favoured by nature, that the inhabitants have abundant reason to be contented. The climate is favourable; the soil, like that of Mingrelia, rich, and adapted to every species of grain, particularly to the cultivation of tobacco, cotton, rice, and even indigo. The saffron, of the same species as the crocus ang., but superior in strength, grows wild in the valleys ; and the plants of the green houses of Europe are the common flowers of the field. The mountains are covered with the finest oak; and that valuable tree, the valonia. is found every where. Besides the usual trees of the forest. beech, ash, elm, &c., all the fruit trees common to Europe attain here the highest perfection; and I never saw the linden, <In no other country is this tree of such general utility : its wide-spreading foliage adorns their hamlets ; its aromatic flowers provide honey for their bees, and a tisane for themselves when unwell ; its bark is made into sandals, baskets, mats, coverings for their cots :-in short, it serves a hundred purposes> cherry, and chestnut, equalled in magnitude ; which may also be said of the plane, and the yew: the latter grows to an immense size, and from the colour and veins of the timber, might replace mahogany with advantage : and such is the abundance and large dimensions of the box, that it would afford a supply for all the wood engravers of Europe during centuries. Among the most beautiful, and by no means the rarest tree, and for which I am unable to find a European appellation, is that called by the natives, outchelia ; the wood is of a deep rose colour, and the grain being close, variegated, and susceptible of a high polish, it might be rendered available for every species of ornamental furniture.

Owing to the number of plants of every species, that creep from tree to tree, here forming a leafy bower, and there a tangled wall, it is impossible to penetrate these virgin forests, unless a passage is hewn out with the hatchet; for which purpose, every Circassian carries one in his belt. The wide spreading foliage of the alder and willow, with the raspberry, blackberry, and other blooming shrubs, as underwood, adorn the banks of the rivers ; while the variegated blossoms of the p omegranate, and a hundred other beautiful fruit trees, give variety to the many tinted foliage of the forest.

At every step our admiration is excited, on beholding vines of the most incredible size, encircling the highest trees loaded with the clustering grape, the broad leaves so completely enveloping the trees, that we are often unable to divine their species ; nor is this luxuriant vegetation confined to the forest, as cotton is frequently seen growing wild on the prairies, and grain of every kind, with flax and hemp, in the valleys. Here, indeed, the husbandman is certain of being rewarded for his labour; and he has no fear that his crop will suffer from the caprice of the season, as if bounteous nature were determined that every want of man should be supplied . . .

The mountaineers of the Caucasus are perhaps the most original people existing, still preserving many of the customs that distinguished the patriarch of old. In strict accordance with the command of Moses to the Israelites, the husbandman never fails to leave a little uncut corn, for the purpose of feeding the fowls of the air. Their manner of threshing is also still the same as that of the earliest inhabitants of the earth. This process is performed on a little circular paddock, shorn of its grass, and properly hardened ; when half a dozen horses, or more, attached to a pole, are made to perform the circuit in full gallop ; and it is incredible in what a short space of time they get through a heap of corn : the straw, however, is good for nothing, except as fodder for the cattle.

Their mills for grinding corn, usually termed horse-mills, are equally primitive, being situated under the earth, with a wheel at the top, which is turned by a horse : the man who brings corn to grind must also bring a horse to turn the wheel ; and, as there is no money in circulation, they pay the owner for the use of his mill in grain. The lighter seeds, such as millet (the favourite food of a Circassian), is generally ground by the women, at home, with the common hand-mill.

The granary of a Circassian in those districts, most liable to the ravages of war, however singular its form, is, nevertheless, admirably adapted for a country, like this, exposed to the continual devastations of the enemy, independently of the advantages that it preserves the grain for years, both from damp and vermin. For this purpose, a pit is dug in the earth of such a size as may be required, the mouth being only sufficiently wide to allow a man to enter, after a fire has rendered it perfectly dry; hay is placed at the bottom and round the sides, to protect the corn from damp; the top is covered with boards, and finally with earth, over which the grass soon grows; consequently, it is impossible for any one, save the man who buried it, to point out the spot where the treasure lies concealed. Hence an enemy may be encamped on the very ground which contains abundance, and yet be starving for the want of provisions.

The rearing of flocks and herds, particularly horses, is the occupation in which these people take the greatest interest; for a rich Circassian, like a patriarch of old, values himself upon the excellence and number of his flocks and herds; to which we may add, his wives and children. Their oxen are remarkably fine, of the same dun colour and eastern breed as those we see in Hungary ; and their sheep (also eastern) have been, of late years, considerably improved by those of their neighbours, the Cossacks. Numbers of buffaloes wallow in the marshes and rivers, and goats browse on the hills; the latter are some of the largest, with the longest hair, and finest limbs, I ever beheld.

The horse, here termed chii, the special favourite of every Circassian, for strength of limb, beauty of form, and fleetness, cannot be exceeded by that of any other country, not even the far famed Arabian, or English racer; and I doubt much whether any other could, from the force of long habit, and the nature of the country, bear the same fatigue, and scramble with the same sure-footedness up the craggy rocks, and down the steep glens. Nothing can be more simple than their method of breaking in a horse; he is first secured with the lasso, which is itself a feat of no common danger, the herd being generally. left to roam half wild through the woods. The Circassian then commences by tying his neck with a halter, so tight that it almost appears as if strangulation were intended : in this state he is pulled about till nearly exhausted, or at least till considered thoroughly subdued ; and after being rode for some time, becomes, in a few days, as tractable and attached to his master as a spaniel dog.

Perhaps in no country in the world is a horse better treated than in this ; neither is there any people who understand better how to manage him. The great secret appears to be kindness; he is never beaten; consequently, his spirit remains unbroken, and affection for his master undiminished. Swimming, together with all the guerilla evolutions, in which he is to be an actor, are among his accomplishments; and in process of time he becomes as cunning and expert in eluding pursuit as a human being. I have frequently seen one lying at the feet of his master, when in ambush, perfectly quiet, or submitting without resistance to have his head adopted as a rest for the rifle.

In short I might fill a letter in describing the various traits exhibited by these interesting animals, and the facility with which they may be taught whatever is desired. To this end, a Circassian horse is tutored to understand every sentence addressed to him; and however far we may be advanced in the various arts and accomplishments of civilised life, yet we are considerably behind these people, not only in the management of horses, but in humane consideration for them, and from whom our grooms might take a lesson with great advantage. How little, then, are we acquainted with the degree to which this noble animal is capable of being educated and improved! There is none less vicious, none more sensible of good treatment, and none more endearing in its affections. Those that are brought up in the farmyard while young, are so gentle, as to be the playmates of children; and when fit for the saddle, they allow themselves to be broke in, without it being necessary to have recourse to scarcely any violence.

Previous to the war with Russia, the Circassians were accustomed to season the food of their cattle very plentifully with salt; but now, in consequence of the strict blockade maintained on their coasts, they are prevented from receiving the necessary supply of this most valuable article, which they were in the habit of procuring from the Turks. The mutton and beef are excellent; and the lamb, like that of the Crimea, delicious. Every village abounds with dogs, similar in appearance to those of our shepherds; to which we may add greyhounds, coursing being one of the popular amusements of the people: for this, the fine large hares certainly offer a strong temptation, some of them weighing even twenty pounds.

The winged creation are most abundant, including wild turkeys, woodcocks, partridges, quails, and snipes : of the latter I reckoned four different species; but, notwithstanding the vicinity of the Phase, the original country of the pheasant, strange to say, I saw but very few in the Caucasus. Swans, wild geese, and every other description of aquatic bird, haunt, in vast numbers, the rivers and marshes; consequently, he who is supplied with ammunition, and can use a rifle, it is his own fault if he goes to bed without a supper.

The boar and noble deer are also very abundant ; the latter are frequently brought up, tame, when they may be seen Gambolling about in nearly every farmyard in the country. Of the wild animals, the jackal is the most numerous ; he is about the size of a fox hound. with a fine bushy tail reaching to the ground, lank, sharpheaded, and exceeding swift and timid. The suroke, suslik, and jerboa, abound here, as in the Crimea. There are also various species of moles ; that called the slepez, first discovered on the steppe, in Krim-Tartary, is also a native of the low grounds in the Caucasus ; they are, however, here, larger in size, and more ferocious. It is, in every respect, like the common mole, with the exception of the head, which is flat and broad, like that of an otter; and being armed with the most formidable tusks, it is rendered for so small an animal,’ a dangerous foe ; and its courage is such, that when marching in numbers, they rarely deviate from their path, but bite and tear every thing they encounter. The wolf, vulture, and eagle, may be said to be the only enemies the shepherd has to contend against ; the latter attains a fearful size. Bears are not numerous; and, with the exception of the scolopendra morsitans, various species of the tarantula and scorpion, there are scarcely any venomous reptiles in the country.

The general food of the Circassians differs little from that of the Tartars who inhabit the mountainous parts of the Crimea; mutton, kid, fowls, rice, buck-wheat, millet, dried fruits, and honey, form the principal ingredients of the cuisine. Fish, notwithstanding it abounds in the Euxine, and in the rivers of the country, I never found served at their tables. Almost every species of game is eaten, except the boar and porcupine; and, like the Turks, they are accustomed to season their meat somewhat too plentifully with capsicums. The quantity of raw cucumbers consumed by the whole population is astonishing: they may be seen eating them during the whole day. Unlike ours, the rind is perfectly white; and although they grow to a prodigious size and length, yet they retain all the crispness and flavour peculiar to a young cucumber. During the summer, quantities are collected and preserved in salt for the winter, in the same manner as the Germans do saur-kraut.

The tendrils and young fruit of the pumpkin are also much in demand. These are boiled and eaten with butter, salt, and capsicums. I frequently partook of this vegetable, when I found it by no means despicable. Wild asparagus, carrot, and the leaves of the dandelion, are held in high estimation. The honey is indebted for its very superior quality and flavour, to the wild thyme, and other aromatic flowers of the mountains, upon which the bees feed; and forms a most important article in the husbandry and cuisine of a Circassian. It is not only eaten in the comb, but used in a great variety of dishes. Their mode of keeping the bees is extremely simple: sometimes a hive is plaited together from the bark of the linden, into a cylinder-like form, of six or seven inches in diameter; but, most generally, the bark of a young tree is preferred, the extremities of which are closed up, and placed horizontally in piles upon each other. When detaching the bees from the hive, they use a little burned straw instead of sulphur.

Wines, spirituous liquors, even the boza of the Tartars and Turks, called here bak-sima, is rarely used by the Circassians, their favourite beverage being the skhou; a species of sour-milk peculiar to the East, and which I found to be a most healthy, refreshing, and agreeable beverage, during my travels in these countries. Fresh milk (sezend) is never used by the Circassians, being considered unwholesome, and certain to originate fevers: hence they are accustomed to boil it every morning and evening after the cows are milked, and, when cool, mixing with it a little of the old skhou. In three or four hours afterwards it becomes thick, and fit for use; and, when flavoured with a little rosewater and sugar, or indeed in any form whatever, it is a most grateful and refreshing drink. Even now, I recall with gratitude the deliciously cool draught, which I frequently drank while suffering from a beat of at least 40 degrees of Reaumur.

It is worthy of remark, that the skbou alone gives to the milk that peculiarly agreeable taste which we find in the East; and preserves it, during the hottest weather, in a fit state for drinking. From whence the skhou had its origin, is a matter of great contention among the people of the East. The Turks and Tartars, who call it yaourte, say, in accordance with their traditions, that the Almighty himself revealed the knowledge of its use to Abrahain, who transmitted the art of preparing it to posterity while the Circassians, and, I believe, the Arabs, contend that Hagar, when driven from the house of her lord, and fainting with heat and thirst in the desert, was presented by angels with a cup of the Oriental nectar: from which time it has been preserved to the present day, as a corrective to the milk. however, be this as it may, the skhou constitutes the principal article in the food of a Circassian : boiled with millet, or maize, it forms his breakfast; while his pilaff, at noon, and evening meal, are alike mixed with it. During winter, that the supply should be unfailing, it is preserved in tubs, with a little salt, when it forms a consistency like curd.

Next to skhou, the article of food most necessary to these primitive people, is millet, without which, and a bottle of their favourite beverage, no Circassian ever leaves home; and, as flint and steel form an indispensable part of his travelling apparatus, he is never at a loss for subsistence, even in the most desolate regions. While bivouacking, it is an interesting sight to see hundreds seated around their fires, each with his little casserole, preparing his slender repast, which, from their temperate habits, they enjoy with as keen a relish as the professed gourmand of Europe would the most recherche viands of the cuisine.

GIVING AND TAKING IN MARRIAGE

Owing to the long intercourse maintained between the Circassians and the Tartars of the Crimea before the Russian conquest of that country, both people are distinguished by a great similarity in their customs and manners; and, in common with most eastern people, pursue the same system of purchasing their wives, and selling their daughters to the highest bidders. This is the more to be wondered at, when we remember that a Circassian regards his own liberty as the first of all earthly blessings ; yet a father will sell his daughter, and a brother his sister. However, this is not considered in any other licit than as a most honourable way of providing for them; and the fair lady who has spent her youth in the harem of a rich Persian or Turk, on returning to her native country, decked in all her finery, never fails to create in the minds of her young friends a desire to follow her example; consequently, they jump on board the vessel destined to convey them, perhaps for ever, from home and friends, with as much alacrity as if they were proceeding to take possession of a crown.

The system of selling their females to strangers, has, probably, tended to preserve in some degree the civilization and refinement visible in the inhabitants of the Caucasus, as those of the women who return to their native land, after residing among a people much higher than their own in the scale of civilization, bring with them a degree of knowledge that enables them to effect a variety of improvements and ameliorations in the social condition of their countrymen, who otherwise, from their secluded situation, would probably, ere this, have relapsed into complete barbarism. On the other hand, it has been the cause of many serious wars and petty feuds between the different tribes, who, from their rapacity to procure a supply of beauties for the market, were accustomed to make predatory incursions into the territory of each other, solely for the purpose of carrying off the young women. Happily for humanity, this practice has now nearly disappeared: for which they have been indebted to the late confederation among the tribes; and also to the circumstance that the Russian flag waves supreme over the Black Sea, which has had the effect of suspending nearly every species of intercourse with their neighbours.

It would appear, the petty princes of the Caucasus are quite as sensible of the advantages of powerful family connexions as their brethren in Europe; consequently, they prefer giving their daughters in marriage to some noble or influential chief of the native tribes, to disposing of them to foreigners. Perhaps no people, particularly the princes, are more desirous than the Circassians to preserve their race pure and uncontaminated. From which cause, more regard is paid, in the selection of a wife, to beauty of form and features, than to accomplishments: the number of flocks and herds to be given to the father in the purchase of his daughter varying according to her attractions.

Indeed, a Circassian of the true Atteghei race rarely takes a wife from among the people of any tribe in the Caucasus who do not acknowledge the same lineage as himself; but he is not so exclusive with respect to his daughter, whom he will transfer to the highest bidder, whether Turcoman, Nogay Tartar, or even a Calmuck. The preference is, however, I believe, always accorded to an Atteghei. Although these people estimate the value of a woman in cows, yet they do not think it necessary to adhere literally to these useful animals in the payment, but vary the dowry according to their own wants and inclinations. If the father is a warrior, it is probable he will accept, in lieu of his child, a suit of Persian armour, weapons, &c.; or he may prefer a certain number of horses or the personal services of the suitor for a year or two in his farm.

At present, owing to the limited commerce between the inhabitants of the Caucasus and their old friends, the Turks and Persians, the price of the women has considerably decreased, which is lamented over by those parents who may have a houseful of girls, with the same despair that a merchant mourns over a warehouse full of unsold goods. On the other hand, the poor Circassian is elated with this state of affairs, as, instead of giving his whole labour for a number of years, or surrendering the greater part of his flocks and herds, he may now obtain a wife on very easy terms, the value of the fair merchandise having fallen from the enormous price of a hundred cows, down to twenty or thirty.

When the accepted lover has fulfilled his engagements, or given security for their performance, arrangements are made for the marriage; the girl is decked in all her finery, and completely covered by a Ion, white veil, which, among the wealthy, is flowered with gold or silver. A friend of the bridegroom officiates as bridesman, and gallops away with the girl to the house of some relative where the wedding is to be celebrated.

On arriving at their destination, the bride is received by the matron of the house with all the solemnity observed on such an important occasion. She is then conducted to the apartment destined for the happy pair, where she is left alone, with a bundle of pine torches, or a fire of the same material; the replenishing of which, so as to preserve a continued blaze until the arrival of her destined lord, is an indispensable duty. This is done to prevent the entrance of any supernatural enemy, who might be tempted to run away with the prize.

We must not, however, forget to mention, that an elderly matron, one who usually officiates on such occasions, after the entrance of the bride, performs the mystic ceremony of walking three times round the nuptial-bed, repeating the words of some charm in Arabic, commencing with the head, and finishing with the feet; after which, she places three earthenware pots, filled with corn, at the head, foot, and side; in each of which a lamp is left burning. The happy moment, midnight, having arrived, the bridegroom mounts his horse, and seeks his friend, who, in the interim, takes up his abode in the neighbouring woods. On being introduced to his bride elect, he draws his poniard, and instantly performs the ceremony, so peculiar to the whole of the Caucasian tribes of cutting open the corset that has confined her form from infancy.

It is owing to this singular custom of wearing the corset, that we so frequently see the countenances of the young girls sallow and unhealthy in Circassia, and their forms often illshaped; for it is not until being divested of the virginal corset, that they expand into what nature had intended them to be. No other ceremony is observed at a Circassian bridal, except feasting and merry-making. At the break of clay the youth departs with his wife, presents her to his parents, and she is installed in the dwelling appropriated for her near their house; but, according to the custom of the people, her husband never visits her except by stealth, a degree of disgrace being attached to the man who devotes his time to the society of his wife. Polygamy is allowed; but a Circassian is generally contented with one wife; or, at most, two.

A Circassian, during the prime of life, appears to avoid every thing that may tend to render him effeminate, even the society of his wife and children. With the same view, he braves not only the inclemency of weather, but hunger and thirst; and, although surrounded by plenty, he will travel for weeks with no better provision than the usual bag of millet and bottle of skhou. Indeed, it is only when accompanied by a stranger, and then, through courtesy, or on days of public festivals, that these most abstemious people indulge in any thing like luxurious living. He, however, throws away this stoicism in declining years, and may be said only then, according to our notion, to enjoy life; for we every where see the man, venerable from age, surrounded by his wife, children, and grandchildren, exhibiting a picture of domestic happiness.

This renunciation of domestic society for the duties of a hardy warrior, might induce the belief that the men of Circassia were incapable of feeling, in any great degree, the gentler affections; for, should a warrior meet his wife unveiled, he will shun her with as much appearance of aversion as if an asp had crossed his path ; yet, from all I have been able to learn, they live together in the most perfect domestic harmony, the great object of his life being to provide for their wants, and never neglecting his children till they arrive at maturity. We might, also, suppose, that their wives, left so much without the society of their husbands, would be exposed to seduction, particularly as they are at liberty to receive the visits of both male and female friends and relations. This supposition, I was informed, was equally groundless, being generally characterised for great moral conduct. Still, like every other country, there are here exceptions. On this occasion, however, a Circassian is not quite so relentless as his neighbour, the Turk, contenting himself with giving her a sound beating, and, in extreme cases, of sending her back to her parents -alas! for their gallantry-minus ears and nose; the laws of the land not permitting any severer vengeance, except that of selling her as a slave. The punishment of the paramour is confined to a heavy fine, as a compensation to the man for the loss of his property. It happens sometimes, however, a Circassian revenges his loss of honour by the destruction of the seducer; but, as this is illegal, lie must answer for the deed before the tribunal of elders, who never fail to inflict – no matter how aggravated may have been the provocation – such a fine as will compensate the friends of the deceased.

AND ETCETERA: CRIME, PUNISHMENT AND EDUCATION

I found the method of punishing criminals by fine very general, which appears well adapted to a country like Circassia, where property is ver equally divided: indeed, I do not think a single individual is to be met with destitute of the ability to procure the means of subsistence, owing to their mode of living being so simple, and their wants so few; the only luxuries they appear to indulge in being fine horses and splendid weapons, which perfectly accords with their warlike character.

Their courts of justice are always held in a sacred grove, under the canopy of heaven, and are said to be most equitable in their decisions with regard to the individuals of their own clans; they, however, relax in justice when a stranger is concerned, with whom they have not contracted any engagement. These national assemblies are always presided over by the chief, and the principal elders of the land; and conducted, to the letter, after their ancient code of laws, which are to the Circassians sacred and unalterable. You cannot conceive any thing more interesting and romantic than these discussions, particularly to a European, accustomed as we are to hear the voice of judicial authority in the splendid edifices of our own country, accompanied with all the artificial aids that can render its decisions imposing and venerable. On witnessing them, my imagination was carried back to the days of our own great Alfred. Here I saw a prince, with his mantle for a throne, and the wide-spreading oak for a canopy, surrounded by his clansmen and the elders of the land, all listening to his discourse with the most reverent attention, none presuming to speak until it was his turn to address the assembly: nevertheless, the honour of president, or judge, is not always delegated to a prince merely on account of his rank, but for his known abilities to perform its duties; as, ever since the rebellion of the Khapsoukhi tribes, some ten or fifteen years since, in consequence of the tyranny of their chiefs, all local questions are confided to the judgment of the elders of the land; and the government of nearly all the Atteghei confederated tribes, at the present day, may be said to be more republican than aristocratical. Neither age, rank, nor wealth, has any influence in the election of an elder; virtue, wisdom, and the gift of eloquence, being alone the requisite qualifications. The debates are, it must be confessed, occasionally somewhat noisy, as I have frequently seen a haughty Hotspur, who, finding the discussion not taking a turn favourable to his views, rise from his seat, foaming with rage, to interrupt the orator; notwithstanding, such is the respect paid by this people to judicial authority, it was only necessary for the prince, or one of the elders, to elevate his hand, when silence was immediately obtained.

Their criminal enactments are based upon the principle of retaliation, and by no means distinguished for ferocity. When a man commits murder, the friends of the victim have a right to demand either his life or property; and, so far as I was able to ascertain, the latter was almost invariably preferred; but, as there are no bounds to the extent of the claim, in cases of great enormity, if the fine is rigidly exacted, it brings down ruin upon the perpetrator and his family; and, should their resources be inadequate to meet the demand, the murderer is sold as a slave, and banished for ever from the country.

In order to give you a clearer insight into the mode of administering justice among this singular people, I shall relate a few instances. A Circassian, having returned from a predatory excursion, sold a horse, part of his booty, to a neighbour, which he warranted perfectly sound; it was, however, subsequently discovered that the animal had received a slight wound in the hoof, but not till after he had fallen and broken the leg of the rider. The wounded man laid his complaint before the elders of the land, when the seller of the horse was held responsible, and a mitigated amercement levied, although he endeavoured to exonerate himself on the plea of ignorance, having taken the horse, only a few days previous, from a Tchernemorsky Cossack, during an attack on the frontier.

Again, a Khapsoukhe warrior, in the service of a chief, having been out on a hunting expedition with his lord, both fired at a bear, who, badly wounded, and pursued by the hunters, took refuge in a farm yard. The aspect of such a fearful visitor put to flight the whole of the tenants : these, in their endeavours to escape, and loudly screaming flew against the riders, when one of the horses, becoming restive, fell, and killed its rider. The friends of the deceased summoned their chief before the elders, praying for retributive justice. The prince endeavoured to exculpate himself, by proving before them the docility of his horse, and threw the whole blame on the winged inhabitants of the poultry yard: the plea was not, however, admitted, the elders assuming that the nerves of a well-educated Circassian horse ought to have withstood the shock of a charge, not only of scared scampering poultry, but even of a whole troop of Cossacks.

This retributive justice has also the effect of preventing many a sanguinary combat between the neighbouring tribes ; for, though each party are to be seen apparelled in battle array, exhibiting every symptom of angry feeling, yet their differences are almost always, in the present day, amicably arranged, each party fearing to proceed to extremities, well knowing the endless litigation that would follow, as the friends of the dead and wounded never fail to prosecute their claims before an assembly of the chiefs and elders, who enforce restitution for any injuries committed.

Among the Circassians, like the ancient Spartans, the thief who exercises his profession with dexterity excites universal admiration ; and you cannot insult a Circassian more than to tell him he did not know how to steal an ox. However, the maladroit, who may be detected, is not only condemned to the restitution of the stolen articles, but to a fine of nine times their value. In fact, these people are very clever thieves, and nothing could protect a stranger from their slight-of-hand dexterity, were it not for the religious respect they pay to the rights of hospitality; for, however much a Circassian may be addicted to this vice-here considered a virtue -from the moment a traveller has entered his house, and broken bread with him, he would defend the person and property of the stranger even with life itself.

Diffidence is certainly not one of the traits in the character of a Circassian, for he never loses a benefit from want of asking; and the traveller who may have a large circle of friends, stands a fair chance of being deprived of every article he possesses. I found myself assailed by hundreds of the cousins and near relations of my Konak, who professed for me the greatest friendship, and to whom it was etiquette to present some trifling remembrance ; but, as a stranger is also entitled to a present in return, he may get rid of their importunities by admiring some article of value belonging to themselves, which, in the Circassian code of manners, is tantamount to a request for it.

The education of the youth of Circassia recalls to our recollection the heroic epoch of immortal Greece, for rarely, very rarely, is a male child reared under the parental roof. When born, he is presented with a bow and a case of arrows, as symbols of his future destiny; and an amulette is bound on some part of his body, for the purpose of securing him from witchcraft and the evil eye. After the first few years of helpless infancy have passed over, he is taken from the mother, and consigned to the care of a warrior famous for his skill in the military exercises of his country, who now fulfils to the boy the duties of a parent, bearing the title of attalick (foster-father); and, during the whole of the time the boy remains under his superintendence, he is never permitted to visit his parents, lest he should be spoiled by indulgence, or enervated by excessive affection.

As the Circassians are entirely ignorant of letters, his education is confined to every species of gymnastic exercise that can contribute to give force and agility to the frame. He is taught, in addition to riding and swimming, the most expert method of using every warlike weapon; he also studies eloquence, that he may distinguish himself as an orator in the national assemblies of his country; and, to complete his studies, he is instructed in the art of thieving with adroitness.

When the youth is considered to have attained a sufficient proficiency in these accomplishments, be is conducted to the house of his parents in triumph, and a splendid banquet is given. The friends and relations are invited; the youth rehearses his acquirements ; his attalick is complimented, not only with words, but more substantial offerings of gratitude, and ever after enjoys the highest consideration in the family. A reciprocal affection exists between him and his pupil through life, so that a young Circassian may be said to be doubly guarded with parental care.

RELIGION AND FOLKLORE

Since the destruction of the empire of Constantine, in the East, the Turks alone have been on friendly terms with the inhabitants of the Caucasian provinces, to whom they have been indebted for the introduction of Islamism. The doctrines of Mahomet, however, never struck any deep root among these people; for, although a few of the tribes on the coast profess this faith, it is so mixed up with Christianity, as almost to form a separate religion: a circumstance which is often alluded to by the devout Turk with feelings of deep regret.

The Grecian and Italian writers, on the Caucasian provinces, of the middle ages, founding their opinions upon the number of crosses of the St. Andrew form then existing in the country, assert that this saint, or his disciples, converted the inhabitants to Christianity; while others contend that St. Nina, a princess of Georgia, and contemporary with Constantine, had the honour of spreading the light of our holy religion among the mountaineers of the Caucasus. Be this as it may, the fundamental truths of Christianity were never sufficiently established to resist the torrent of ignorance that flowed back again on the land: a consequence of the people being destitute of a written language, or any guide save oral traditions.

Several Armenian and Karaite Jew merchants, accustomed to penetrate into the interior of the country, confirmed the information I received at Bombora, that the inhabitants of some of the remote mountain districts in Upper Abasia actually profess Christianity, unmixed either with Islamism or Pagan superstition; maintain their clergy, and assemble at stated seasons to celebrate divine worship. Might not this open a wide field for the labours of those who are solicitous for the dissemination of Christianity? and is it not highly probable that, with the aid of the native believers, its sacred truths might be again diffused among a people who still respect it?

The principal articles in the faith of the inhabitants of the Western Caucasus are,-a firm belief in one God, supreme and powerful, and in the immortality of the soul, which they feel convinced will be translated to another world, the abode of their fathers. Like the Mahometans, they do not represent the Deity under any visible form, but define him as the Creator of all things, whose spirit is diffused over all space. Besides the one Eternal God, they believe in the existence of several inferior beings, or saints, to whom the Great Spirit, <It is remarkable that, with a slight difference in the pronunciation, this word in the Circassian Language also signifies the sun, tghka.Thka, has delegated power over such sublunary things as he deems too trivial for his awful superintendence. These saints have each an anniversary, which is celebrated with public rejoicing and prayer, in the same manner as festivals are in Catholic countries. Some of them are represented under a peculiar symbol; but they do not worship them, except as intermediate agents. Upon this subject I made strict inquiry, and found that all my informants agreed as to this point, and which confirmed what I had previously heard from several Russian officers, who had been for many years in communication with the Circassians. Nevertheless, this worship must be regarded as a species of adoration by the strict Protestant and the equally rigid Mahometan.

The most powerful among these saints is Seozeres, to whom the winds and the waters are in subjection. He is regarded with especial reverence by those who reside near the coast ; and equally so by the shepherd, being also the protector of flocks and herds. His f@te is celebrated by the inhabitants of each village or hamlet at the beginning of spring, when his symbol, a dried pear-tree, is adorned with garlands of flowers, and various other ornaments, not unlike a May-pole. A large curd, or cheese, is attached to the summit; and several lamps, according to the number of the guests invited (the feast being usually held at the house of the chief, or one of the elders), are kept burning, here and there, over the tree. As cleanliness is considered a virtue among these people, the symbol of the saint, preparatory to being clothed in its finery, is most carefully washed in the purest spring water. Every thing being ready, it is solemnly carried into the house by one of the elders; and, as the saint is supposed to be a great navigator and traveller, his emblem is welcomed with acclamations by the whole company. An animal is sacrificed to his honour; a public banquet prepared; and feasting and rejoicing continued for three days, with an occasional supplication to the saint to protect them from the evils which he is supposed to have the power of averting. The feast concludes by the division of the cheese among the guests, which superstition invests with the property of curing numerous diseases. Each Circassian family preserves one of these sacred trees on his premises : the saint is, however, entirely neglected until his anniversary again occurs.

One of the most remarkable features in this festival is, its resemblance to that of St. John, still celebrated by the peasants of the remote districts, in the Carpathian mountains; to which we may add, that the decking of a tree with flowers, ornaments, and lights, during the Christmas holidays, is practised, even to this day, by nearly the whole of the inhabitants of Germany, and other countries in the north of Europe; and one of the prettiest gifts you can present to a child in Germany, at Christmas, is an ornamented fir tree, covered with fruit, flowers, confectionary, and wax lights.

Another of the Circassian saints is Merissa, protector of bees ; and no less important a personage than the mother of God. This is evidently a mixture of Paganism with the adoration paid to the Virgin Mary. In a country like Circassia, where honey forms so important a part of the husbandry of the people, and mingles so extensively with their food, we cannot wonder that they personified a deity of such powerful influence to guard the bee; and, from their traditions, it appears she performed the trust most faithfully; for, on one occasion, when an evil spirit most wilfully attempted to destroy the whole of these industrious insects, she preserved a couple by her miraculous power, and repopulated the woods and forests. This feast is celebrated for three days, about the middle of September, with feasting and rejoicing, like the others; the only difference being, that the dishes and drinks composing the banquet are made entirely from the produce of the bee.

Besides these, there are several other saints, such as Yemikha, Skuskha, Naokhatkha, and Meste, protectors of agriculture, woods, and forests, &c., who are each honoured with a festival. To which we may add the powerful king, Tliebske, a mixture of Mars and Vulcan, protector of armourers. Thunder and lightning, as it emanates immediately from the great Spirit, Thka, is regarded by the Circassians with the greatest veneration; and happy is the man who is so distinguished as to frill a victim to its violence: his body is consigned to the earth with great solemnity, and his family rejoice at the great honour conferred upon them. When they hear the chebli (thunder) rolling in the heavens, they believe it to be an angel of God, travelling in his fiery chariot through the air; and rush forth from their houses, en masse, to thank the celestial messenger who thus irrigates their fields, and refreshes and purifies the air, during the great heats of summer.

The Circassians also reverence, with more than common devotion, three sisters, who preside over and encourage the happiness of domestic life, good fellowship, and harmony, with their neighbours. These divinities are also supposed to shield the warrior in battle with their protecting wings, and to guard the footsteps of the traveller; consequently, the natives never undertake an expedition, or even change their domicile, without making a propitiatory offering to the fair saints. Perhaps this custom may also be regarded as a remnant of Christianity, and typify the Trinity.

Their clergy do not form a distinct body: the aged, and those highly esteemed among their compatriots for virtue, wisdom, and courage, being always selected as the most holy and fit persons to offer up the prayers and thanksgiving of the people to the throne of the great Thka (God of gods, Lord of lords). Their religious ceremonies are always celebrated in a sacred grove, exclusively appropriated to that purpose, and characterised by some religious emblem, generally a cross, in the Latin or Greek form. Once or twice I observed an emblem, in their sacred groves, in the valley of Ardler, more resembling a T than a cross, said to he extremely ancient : I was not, however, able to obtain any information as to its original purport. When a warrior returns home victorious, or an individual has been rescued from calamity, either real or anticipated, he repairs to the sacred grove to present some offering, as a sacrifice to the Divinity, or as a tribute of gratitude.

These offerings, usually adorned with wreaths of flowers, are generally suspended to a tree, in the vicinity of the cross; and every tribe and class concur in religiously respecting them: hence they are never removed, unless when sonic hostile tribe makes an incursion into the country, who regard them as legitimate objects of plunder. The grateful worshipper also sacrifices an animal on the occasion of his deliverance, whose head is attached to one of the neighbouring trees.

The beauty of these sacred groves; the highly picturesque country ; the silence that reigned in the forest ; the votive offerings of piety; the cross, the emblem of our religion ; the simple rites of this interesting people, assembled before our Creator in the temple of nature,- never failed to excite in me feelings of respect, awe, and veneration ; for, under whatever form the Almighty is adored, may we not hope the worship will be found acceptable at the throne of mercy ?

The officiating priest who celebrates public worship at a general assembly of the people, is usually a man in the prime of life, with a full-grown beard, nearly reaching his girdle: he is habited in the Tchaouko; and, with his head uncovered, and bowing reverently before the cross, commences the celebration of service by a propitiatory sacrifice to the Divinity, which, on ordinary occasions, consists of a lamb, kid, goat, or sheep: on those of great solemnity, such as a victory, an abundant harvest, or on public fore days, the animal is a full-grown ox, especially selected for its beauty.

Before immolation, the priest takes one of the pine torches that stand blazing near the emblem of their faith, and burns the hair on that part of the body where he intends to strike, and immediately afterward pours over its head a goblet of bak-sima. The dexterity and quickness with which the animal is despatched, is surprising; for it appears to pass in a moment from life to death. After the sacrifice, the priest takes a cup of the bak-sima, in which is steeped a small cake of barley-bread, and, after blessing and offering it to the supreme God, presents it to the most venerable elder in the assembly, as the highest honour that can be rendered to age and virtue. A similar offering is made to each of the saints, which he blesses in like manner, and presents to the oldest man of the company; and thus the ceremony concludes with prayers, supplications, and thanksgivings; during which, the deepest silence, attention, and devotional piety, is exhibited by the assembled multitude. The head of the animal only is consecrated to the Supreme God : this is suspended to a branch of one of the loftiest trees in the sacred grove. The skin becomes the property of the officiating priest; and, as each member of the congregation contributes something towards a public feast, the flesh of the animals forms a welcome addition ; and the day concludes with eating, drinking, music, dancing, and racing on foot and on horseback, together with every description of warlike exercise.

The day set apart for the celebration of divine service does not occur at stated seasons, being nominated by the officiating elder ; and is seldom oftener than once a-week. Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday, considered unlucky, are never selected; Sunday being generally preferred: and I was informed, that by some tribes in the interior of the country, this day is invariably chosen. After the performance of public worship, the elder announces any event either of local or general importance, such as a declaration of war, the approach of the enemy, loss of cattle, &c.

Among the religious festivals, none is regarded with greater reverence than one celebrated about the time of our Easter. The pomp with which this is observed, and the rejoicings that attend it, leave little doubt that this festival is also a relic of Christianity. The March moon begins with a fast, which is rigidly kept till the end when, at the break of day, the sound of firearms from the dwellings of the principal inhabitants of the village announces the commencement of festivities. All classes then hasten to the sacred grove, and the usual religious rites are performed. On this day an additional number of animals is sacrificed ; and the rejoicings terminate with shooting at eggs, &c., when the skins of the animals become the reward of the most skilful marksmen.

The feast of the first-fruits of the harvest is also one of great consideration, and continues for several days, at which time a succession of visiting takes place throughout the whole of the tribes, each family giving a separate entertainment. The favourite dish is wheat, cut before it is perfectly ripe, roasted, and eaten with skhou, : the other species of grain, fruits, &c., follow in succession. Those who are unable, from infirmity, to attend the houses of their friends during the feast, receive a portion at home, it being considered most unlucky not to partake of some part of the blessings the earth has bestowed on their neighbours. The ceremonies conclude with thanksgivings to that merciful Power who has provided so abundantly for all their wants.

While mentioning the religious observances of the Circassians, I must not omit to tell you that the days of the week correspond with those of Christian countries. The new year, unlike that of the Mahometans, commences about the same time as ours; and the first appearance of spring is also celebrated by a feast. Towards the latter end of October, when the leaves begin to fall, typical of the brief existence of man, public prayers are offered up by the people in commemoration of the dead, to the effect that the celestial Powers would provide for the wants of their friends in Paradise.

The ceremonies that attend the death of a Circassian are simply confined to a few religious songs, and a funeral oration, pronounced by one of the elders over his body, which is enveloped in a white wrapper, and consigned to the earth much in the same way as we see practised in Krim-Tartary. During the space of a year his arms are guarded with the most religious care, and left precisely in the same state as when living: his friends and relatives visit his tomb at stated periods, when they strike their breasts and repeat a few prayers; but his women are obliged to rehearse every evening at sunset, for months, the same poignant display of grief as the Tartars. The anniversary of the death of a distinguished warrior, or chief, is celebrated for years with praying and Feasting; to which we may add horse-racing, and various kinds of martial and athletic exercises.

MEDICINE

In relating all I have been able to glean respecting the customs and manners of this simple people, I must not forget to notice their method of curing diseases, the science of medicine being as little known in the Caucasus as in Krim-Tartary. They are, however, not quite such fatalists as their neighbours, the Nogay Tartars; and one hideous malady, so prevalent among that people, is here, according to every inquiry I made, unknown. Generally speaking, the Circassians are not subject to many diseases: for which they have to thank their own temperance, and the bracing air of the mountains; and were it not for the occasional introduction of an epidemic, and the intermittent fevers of the marshes, they would have little to fear beyond the ordinary infirmities of humanity. When an epidemic does occur, then, indeed, owing to their ignorance, the mortality is frightful. The most awful visitation these poor people perhaps ever experienced, and which is still adverted to with horror. was the introduction of the plague by the Turks in 1816. The inhabitants of whole villages were then swept away; and the country became so depopulated, that the corn decayed on the ground for want of reaping, and the flocks and herds ran wild through the woods without owners. Thanks to the solicitude of their kind friends the Russians, in guarding the coast, the plague has not extended this year to the Caucasus. The cholera and influenza, so fatal to the inhabitants of Europe and the East, had not yet paid them a visit. As to the small-pox, I should say it was either not very prevalent here, or generally fatal, if I might be allowed to judge from the circumstance of rarely meeting with a countenance marked with its ravages.

Their doctors, or rather saints, of whom we find one or two in every village, are utterly ignorant of medicine or surgery: a poniard is the substitute for a lance. If they cannot console pain by the application of an amulette, they use a hot iron, like the Arabs; and, in the same manner, if the hemorrhage from a wound does not cease flowing, through the influence of some potent charm, a plaster of scalding pitch is resorted to: hence, as may be supposed, a man, dangerously wounded, has no chance of recovery; and, notwithstanding their incessant wars with Russia, a maimed warrior is never met with in these countries; which, however, with such surgeons, can be no matter of surprise. Like every half-civilized people, their materia medica is extremely simple: an infusion of wormwood is used in almost every disease; and a tisane, composed of elder flowers, sweet camomile, and honey, for coughs. The vodka of the Cossacks is the universal remedy, when taken internally, for the cholic, intermittent fevers, &c.; and when diluted with water, relieves the ophthalmia, and various cutaneous diseases.

The Calmucks and Turcomans, wandering tribes, are the quacks of the Caucasus; and, if I might credit the details given me, some of their AEsculapian feats are worthy of record; particularly the cure of the epilepsy, which, it appears, they effect by very simple means. Remember, however, that for the correctness of this, I depend upon the accounts of the Circassians, confirmed by my servant Nathan, who declared he had frequently known the treatment to be successful. The medicine used is the root of the artemesia, Lin. <If this medicine, when tried, should not be found to succeed, perhaps it might be advisable to procure the plant direct from the Caucasus, as climate is known materially to affect the properties of every vegetable production.> which is drawn from the earth a few days before or after Michaelmas: the woody part is thrown away, and the other portion of the root, which is brown and juicy, together with the bark, after being dried in the shade, reserved for use. These, when required, are pulverised, and about as much as would fill a tea-spoon, given to the patient in any warm drink half an hour before the fit; who must remain in bed, be kept very warm, and drink plentifully of warm diluting liquors, until profuse perspiration ensues. The dose is to be repeated in the same manner every third day, till the ninth, when he is considered perfectly cured. The patient must, however, avoid, for a few months, strong drinks, and sour, indigestible food, of every description; but, above all, he must be careful not to take cold. In some cases, particularly those of children, one dose has been known to effect a cure.

I was also made acquainted with the Calmuck remedy for hydrophobia, which this people are said completely to cure. It appears, according to their statement, that when a person has been so unfortunate as to have received the poison of a rabid animal into his frame, several white spots or ulcers form under the tongue, and occasion madness; but if these are cut, and the excised parts cauterized, the cure is complete: the operation should, however, be performed the moment they make their appearance. This, also, I give as I received it, without vouching for, or denying, its authenticity. At all events, it would be desirable for some of our medical men to ascertain whether the appearances I have described actually supervene during the presence of hydrophobia, or not.

In my character of stambouli hakkim, I was frequently summoned to visit the sick; when, contrary to our European usages, I invariably found the dwelling of the patient surrounded by a number of young people, making, upon every noisy instrument they could collect, a tremendous clatter, to which they occasionally added loud shouts, for the purpose of frightening away the evil spirit. Generally speaking, I discovered in the chamber one of their saints, seated on the floor, near the pallet of the patient, not administering pills or draughts, but muttering occasionally incantations; between each sentence of which he maintained the most portentous silence.

A YOUNG GIRL SEIZED BY CLAIRVOYANT FITS

In one of my rambles, I met with a very singular instance of somnambulism, in the daughter of a Circassian noble, Noghai Selim Guerrai, near the river Ubin. The girl was, probably, about twelve years of age, and had been suffering from the disease for the last two years. During the prevalence of the fit, which generally lasted from one to three weeks, she was accustomed to employ herself at embroidery, sing to her lute, or deliver extempore poetry in a singing tone, always prophetic of some event that was to occur, of importance to the country; but, except on these occasions, she never uttered a word, nor answered a question, and seemed to address her warnings rather to some invisible spirit, than to the persons around her; she also prescribed for the sick, whom she mentioned by name, gave counsel to the warrior, reproved the wicked, and assured her countrymen, that in their contest with Russia they would be ultimately successful; not one word of which remained in her recollection when she awoke from her magnetic sleep. While this aberration of her faculties continued, her features wore an unnaturally serious expression for such a young girl: her smell, also, was so acute, that she could discover the approach of any person she knew at a considerable distance, to whom she evinced the most capricious dislike or partiality: her health appeared to suffer materially from these attacks, as she invariably awoke from her trance pale, and evidently much fatigued.

These somnambulists, or, as the French call them, clairvoyantes, so peculiar to mountainous countries, seem to form a phenomenon in animal magnetism not yet perfectly understood. I met with a similar case some years since, during a fishing excursion in the neighbourhood of Lindau, on the banks of the lake of Constance in the person of the daughter of the Baron von Rader: she was about the same age as our Circassian Cassandra, and, like her, gifted with prophecy. The duration of the fit, and the symptoms of the patient, were also similar, except that the young German lady frequently remained cataleptic for several hours, which I did not observe in the other.

The Circassians strikingly exemplify the superiority of a farinaceous diet over one composed principally of animal food; active, vigourous, and nearly strangers to disease, they attain a very advanced age; while the Nogay Tartars and Calmucks, who reside among them, and live almost entirely upon meat, particularly horse flesh, are subject to a variety of diseases, especially those of the cutaneous kind. They are also more desponding in their temperament, less courageous and active, and rarely ever reach the great age of their more abstemious neighbours. In addition to the partiality of the Nogay and Calmuck for animal food, they often drink to excess, like their brethren in Krim-Tartary, a spirituous liquor distilled from mare’s milk; a vice from which the Circassians may be said to be entirely exempt; and, as far as I was able to learn, they do not consider horse flesh a delicacy.

The respect exhibited towards the aged by the inhabitants of the Caucasus is not less admirable than their hospitality, and deserves to be imitated by Europeans. The counsel of the most venerable man in the village is sought for with reverence; his decisions are bowed to in all cases of petty contentions; when he speaks, the most loquacious man becomes instantly silent; if angry, his denunciations are patiently listened to; should he strike, the blow is never returned ; wherever he appears, youth makes way for him; the warmest corner near the fire is assigned him, and it is considered an honour to light his tehibouque; when he rides out his horse is caught and saddled, and on his help him down; happy is the mail he blesses, and cursed indeed is the man he curses, for he is shunned by all!

Even poor degraded woman, so generally a stranger to kindnesses and honours in the East, is here treated with the highest consideration.. The minstrels, like the ancient troubadours, sing songs in praise of her charms and virtues. The brave knights of olden time never displayed more respectful gallantry towards the fair sex than these simple mountaineers; and this is the people now menaced with slavery, or extermination!

In summing up the virtues of the Circassians, we must not forget their charity; the poor man never cries at the door of the rich in vain ; the orphan is provided for by the nearest relations as his own children; if a man’s house is burnt, his neighbours assist in building it; if he loses his cattle from sickness, or his corn from blight, each gives him assistance, which the obliged party always make it a point of conscience to repay liberally when fortune is kind.

Like all mountaineers, the Circassians are exceedingly superstitious : people whose eyes are of a certain colour and form, lie under the stigma of being afflicted with the evil eye ; consequently, every thing they look upon must wither, unless they have recourse to their amulets – people, also, without any personal attractions, and those born with physical defects, are, in a greater or less degree, objects of aversion, being considered the unconscious agents of evil spirits ; even the wounds or death of the warrior is attributed to the same agency. When a man is wounded and confined to his couch, his friends are accustomed to remove every weapon from his sight, and to place at the door of his chamber a basin of water with an egg in it, and a ploughshare beside it, for the purpose of scaring away the approach of any demon who might be inclined to molest the patient.

If a man is desirous to visit his invalid friend, he must strike three distinct times on the door before entering, and then scatter a little water about the room. Unlike the couch of the sick in civilized countries, where the strictest silence is enforced, we here find the room filled with young people amusing themselves by singing and dancing. This is done partly with the intention of diverting the attention of the patient from his sufferings, and partly to chase away the evil one, who is supposed to be hovering, in the neighbourhood. To the number three some mystic signification appears to be attached by these people; it is referred to in the composition of all their nostrums, when any object of importance is about to be carried into execution, or even in the most trifling act.

Circassians march for recognition of ‘genocide’

ISTANBUL – Hürriyet Daily News

Thousands of people gather in Taksim Square and march to the Consulate of the Russian Federation to mark the 148th anniversary of the Circassian’s deportation from Russia, which they believe is genocide

Citizens of Caucasian origin gathered at Taksim Square in Istanbul yesterday and marched to the Russian Federation’s Istanbul Consulate, protesting the Circassian deportation and commemorating those who died in the “genocide” they claim Russia committed. The protestors demanded that the “Circassian genocide” be recognized by the world.

A group of about 3,000 people gathered around Taksim Square and marched to the Istanbul Consulate of the RussianFederation carrying placards and chanting slogans. Protestors chanted “Murderer Russia, get out of Caucasia” and “May 21 is the day of resistance.” The group also opened a placard that read, “We will not allow the genocide and the exile to be forgotten.”

They also issued a press statement in front of the consulate.

Strict safety measures were seen around the Russian Consulate due to the march, to avoid further complicating the already tense situation. The Russian Embassy in Ankaraprotested on May 18 a conference on the state of affairs in the Caucasus held by the Istanbul Municipality, where it argued that statements by some participants called for terrorist attacks.

“This kind of hospitality toward those who openly support terrorist activities in Russianterritories is casting a shadow on the positive climate of the Russian-Turkish relationship, and is not befitting the level of partnership that our countries have reached,” a written statement issued by the Russian Embassy in Ankara said. The embassy’s statement referred to two separate conferences, organized by the Istanbul Municipality and Fatih Municipality respectively last week, in which current developments in the Caucasus were discussed with very harsh language regarding Moscow.

Spokesperson for the protestors, Jankat Acı, said in front of the Russian Consulate in Istanbul that May 21, 1864, was the symbolic date of the genocide that brought the Circassians to the brink of extinction and that lead Caucasia to disaster. Acı said hundreds of thousands of Circassians were massacred in the genocide that occurred during Czar-era Russia’s invasion campaign of Caucasia. Acı also said 90 percent of the survivors were sent to exile. Those who are standing up against Russia after 148 years were the children of the generation of Circassians and other Caucasians who were exiled after surviving the genocide, Acı said.

Acı said they were full of rage “because the capital of Circassia, the symbol city of the genocide, Sochi, will be used for the Winter Olympics in 2014. It is also being used byRussia as a tool to distort historical facts. Russia is promoting Sochi as a Russian city. It continues persistently in its campaign to conceal the Circassian identity of the city, its history and the genocide.”

May 21 was a day of resistance and revival, Acı said. He demanded that the world acknowledge the Circassian genocide. “We call on each country in the world, on the Russia Federation which has inherited the heritage of the genocide; we address the national and international public: Recognize the Circassian genocide.”

Although actual Circassians constitute only one of the ethnic groups coming from the North Caucasus region in present-day Russia, all the peoples who originated from that area are generally referred to collectively as “Circassians” in Turkey. Many Circassians were forced to abandon their native homelands when Czarist Russia conquered the region in the 19th century. Most of the Circassians who fled resettled in Ottoman Turkey.

May/21/2012